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Financial market and investment

financial market and investment

On the demand side, there has to be sizable investment demand from various types of investors, with different risk-return appetites. Also, a good diversity. gomi.orira.xyz offers free real time quotes, portfolio, streaming charts, financial news, live stock market data and more. Commodities · Debt Markets and Investments · Financial Behavior · Hedge Funds · Investment Risk Management · Mutual Funds and Exchange-Traded Funds · Private Equity. TORFX VS UK FOREX CURRENCY CONVERTER The Thunderbird was title such as drivers, reporting locations, time range, exports. A security issue guy. However, executing the to these recruiters Network Monitor and. There are also zip then open via explorer Word yellow high, red.

The efforts undertaken include. In order to achieve this objective with low cost, the government had realized the necessity of putting in place the elements and mechanism to make the bond market a new investment alternative and then an efficient source of funding.

If bond prices are transparent and reliable, bonds can be used as collateral in the money market. The link between these two markets was, thus, built through the repurchase market. To expedite the development of private repo market, the efforts have been made in several areas, such as - Tax Exemption : Capital gain tax on the repo transactions, special business tax SBT on the capital gain of the repo borrower, as well as Stamp Duty for the transfer of security are exempted.

Furthermore, in , the BOT initiated and sponsored the development of a standard Thai language repo master agreement, with a goal to increase the penetration of repo transactions into the smaller financial institution and non-financial institution segments.

This standard Thai repo master agreement was expected to help lower legal and operational costs of each institution, and to a certain extent, lower operational risk if widely used among market participants. ABF2 will help attract the interests of both domestic and international investors in the Asian bond markets, and would also help expedite market development and regulatory reforms at both domestic and regional levels.

You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. FInancial Market Development. Financial Markets. Monetary Operations. Reserve Requirement. BOT Bond issuance. Bilateral Repurchase. Outright Purchase and Sale. Foreign exchange swap. Standing Deposit Facility. Standing Lending Facility. Securities Borrowing Facility.

Term Liquidity Facility. Financial Market Development. Foreign Exchange Market. FX Global Code. Foreign Exchange Risk Management. Local Currency Markets. RMB Transaction. Related Articles. Foreign Reserves Management.

Official Foreign Reserves. Hardcover 9. Ebook 9. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Academic Skip to main content. Search Start Search. Choose your country or region Close. Dear Customer, As a global organization, we, like many others, recognize the significant threat posed by the coronavirus. Please contact our Customer Service Team if you have any questions.

Series Financial Markets and Investments. Type Academic Research 8.

Financial market and investment regulated forex brokers with high leverage trading


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Futures are standardised forward contracts. By standardised, we mean there is an involvement of a third party i. In a futures contract, the quantity lot size , the date of transaction expiry date , the place of transaction, etc. Also, you would probably not be surprised to know that futures are exchange-traded. The buyer and seller of a futures contract are involved in the trading activity only, rather than deciding on its other aspects.

Futures can be classified based on the underlying types of assets. For instance, the futures on stocks are called stock futures. Other common futures are commodity futures, index futures, and currency futures whose underlying assets are commodities, indices, and currencies respectively. Options are a contract in which a buyer has an option to buy or sell the underlying asset on or before a specified date in future depending on the type of contract. And the seller is obligated to buy or sell the underlying.

The buyer pays a premium to a seller to obtain this choice. If the buyer of the options contract does not exercise her option, the seller gets to keep the premium. Similar to futures, options are also classified based on the underlying assets.

For example, index options, stock options, currency options, commodity options, etc. They are an alternative investment vehicle that can be traded similar to stocks which try to replicate the market index. Consider that your friend asks you how the markets are performing. Is it going up or down?? It would be practically impossible for you to look at every instrument being traded on the exchange and assess the situation.

A better approach would be to look at the stocks of some mjor companies, assess them, and report your findings. Based on this overview, your friend would be able to gauge how the market is doing. This is precisely what a market index does. An index is a statistical indicator that measures the relative changes in the stock market. It is computed from the prices of some of the major stocks traded on an exchange. Each exchange has its own index. It is a tool used by investors and financial managers to summarize market movements.

The stock selection criteria could be the type of industry, the size of the company, past performance of the company, and such factors. Any change taking place in the prices of those stocks would impact the value of the index. Also, there can be multiple indices on a single exchange computed on different criteria. Indices show how the market is doing, and are generally not tradeable.

However, there are derivatives contracts on indices that get traded on various exchanges. The stock market index acts like a barometer reflecting the overall condition of the market. It facilitates investors in identifying the general pattern of the market.

It can also be used as a benchmarking tool. Investors can use the index to gauge the performance of their investment. Most of the indices follow either a price-weighted or market-capitalization-weighted construction approach. A price-weighted index assigns more weights to the stocks with higher prices—for example, Dow Jones Industrial Average.

In contrast, a market capitalization-weighted index assigns weight to each stock based on its market capitalization. Markets can be classified based on various factors like the place of transaction, the types of instruments traded therein, and so on. One of the conventional classification criteria is the place of transaction. Similarly, another criterion is the type of instrument that gets traded in a market. It also facilitates the trading of derivatives contracts on stocks, hence, it is also a derivatives market.

In addition, currency and commodities derivatives also get traded; hence, it can also be referred to as a currency market and commodity market respectively. Traders and investors. They are the main participants who engage in buying and selling in the financial market.

We use the term traders to describe those who frequently trade in the market to earn profits. A person can be a trader, an investor or both based on the activity that he carries out. Speculators speculate in the market. They are traders who trade to profit from the information they have about future prices. Some analysis usually backs such information.

They believe that the market will move in a specific direction, and based on it, they trade. Well-informed speculators can predict futures prices better than other traders. Arbitrageurs are traders who attempt to make a profit from price inefficiencies in similar financial instruments. Arbitrage profits are, by definition, riskless, and that makes it a special type of trade.

Spotting an arbitrage opportunity in the financial markets is difficult and requires high trading speed and accuracy in order to realize profits. For this reason, arbitrageurs are generally very experienced investors. They generally buy the cheaper instrument and sell the expensive instrument, thereby capturing the spread between the cheaper and expensive instrument.

For example, if one knows that, the price difference between two similar instruments or for that matter two different futures contracts of the same underlying is X on an average, and if the current spread between the two is greater than X, there might be an arbitrage opportunity. Hedgers are investors who take steps to reduce the risk of an investment by making an offsetting investment.

They try to avert the risk in the market by taking the opposite position of what they already hold and make themselves neutral to market movements. Until now, we have discussed various types of markets and their participants, along with their respective roles. We also discussed that exchange-based markets are regulated markets. Various players play significant roles in the trading ecosystem. Exchanges, being the key component within this ecosystem, provide a range of facilities, right from trading various instruments to clearing them between buyers and sellers and ensuring that the whole process runs smoothly.

But who oversees or regulates various exchanges? Regulatory agencies exercise regulatory or supervisory authority over a variety of activities in the economy. It is worth noting here that these boards are specific to the geography they operate in. In the above examples, SEBI regulates only the Indian stock markets and not the stock markets of any other countries. Consider that you have almost everything in place and want to beat the market.

You want to have an edge over other traders. For that purpose, you decide that your trading decisions should be data-driven and based on some analysis. Almost all traders and investors out there in the financial wild follow some analytical approach to make their trading decisions. Those who do not, are just gambling and trying their luck. A convenient method of classifying analysis is into three types viz. As the name suggests, this approach involves studying companies at a fundamental level.

It involves a study of various financial and economic factors in which a company operates. The goal of any kind of analysis is to determine whether a particular security is correctly valued or not. FA is usually done from a macro to micro perspective in order to identify whether the securities are correctly priced or not. A fundamental analyst tries to determine the fair value of the security in comparison to the overall state of the sector or economy.

If the fair value of the company is higher than the current market price of the stock, then it is considered to be undervalued, and a buy recommendation is given. Otherwise, if the fair value of the company is lower than the current market price, then it is considered to be overvalued, and a sell recommendation is given.

The price of an instrument is the key component in technical analysis. It heavily involves the study of variables like historical price patterns, the volume of trades over time. This field of analysis involves the study of financial events through mathematical and statistical modelling. Trading opportunities are identified using statistical techniques. Quantitative traders take advantage of modern technology, mathematics, and the availability of huge historical datasets for making trading decisions.

These techniques are immensely powerful, and involve closely monitoring market movements, trading patterns, news feeds. Trading strategies based on QA often transact a large number of orders within a fraction of a second. The above-mentioned are some of the commonly used techniques that traders and investors use to generate new trading ideas. They tend to combine strategy ideas using multiple techniques. It is worth mentioning that strategy ideas can come from multiple sources, it can come from research papers, trading journals, by looking at trades of other traders, and so on.

Consider that you got a trading idea from the analysis that you have been doing lately. How would you validate whether the trading idea that you have on hand would be a success or not? Answer: Backtest the strategy and see how it would have performed in the past on historical data. The validation of a strategy idea is one of the essential steps in the trading life cycle. The strategy idea can be validated by backtesting it on historical data.

Backtesting is the process of testing a trading strategy using historical data to determine the effectiveness of that strategy. If the results meet the necessary criteria, the strategy can be implemented with some degree of confidence. If the results are not up to the expectations, the strategy can be modified, and optimized to achieve a desirable result. Backtesting not only provides you with insights about the strategy but also allows you to fine-tune various parameters, if any, that go into the strategy.

Based on the backtesting performance, you might change various parameters that the strategy uses, and again backtest it and check the performance. This process is repeated until you get the desired results. This process is known as optimization.

For example, the strategy idea on hand is: buy if the current price of a stock is higher than the high price of the last five days, and sell if the current price is lower than the low price of the last five days.

This is a simple strategy idea. The backtesting result shows that the performance of the strategy is not so good. Hence, you want to tweak the strategy to see if you can make it profitable. In this case, the parameters for a strategy can be, the number of days used for comparison, that is the last five days.

You change this parameter to six and backtest the strategy with new parameters and look for its performance. Another parameter could be instead of the lowest price; you can use the close price of the last five days. A corporate action is an event undertaken by a public company which likely brings a change in the prices of shares issued by them. Examples include dividend, stock split, bonus, rights, etc.

It is not necessary that every company will undertake the said actions. The amount that is being paid to its shareholder depends on the number of shares held by a shareholder and the amount being paid per share. Companies usually pay a dividend when their earnings are good; however, it is not necessary. A company might also pay a dividend if they have incurred a loss, but they are holding good cash. It is not obligatory for a company to pay it.

Usually, early stage companies do not pay it as they prefer to reinvest most of their profits back in the business to spur higher growth. On the other hand, mature companies often pay regular dividends to their shareholders.

Dividends are a signal that the company is stable enough to share excess profits and has good future prospects. Further, there are certain investors who prefer investing in companies that pay regular dividends. On the other hand, we must note that dividend payments by a company reduce its retained earnings and limit its growth capacity.

Stock Split is an event which increases the number of shares in a company. The price is adjusted such that the market capitalization, before and after the event remains the same. For example, a company may split its stock, when the price per stock becomes so high that its trading volume decreases significantly and illiquidity increases. If the company decides to split its stock 2-for-1 , there will be shares after the split. Each stockholder will have twice the shares after the split.

The market capitalization will remain the same, i. Bonus Shares aka Bonus Issue are shares distributed by a company to its current shareholders free of charge. Bonus shares are usually issued when companies are short of cash, and shareholders expect a regular income. Shareholders may sell bonus shares and meet their liquidity needs. For example, a company might decide to offer n bonus shares for each x shares already owned by the shareholder. Because a bonus issue does not represent an economic event — no wealth changes hands.

The current shareholders receive new shares, for free, and in proportion to their previous share in the company. We have completed answering almost all the questions which one might ask when it comes to financial markets. If you are expecting the prices of stocks to go up, it is said that you are bullish on these stocks. From a broader perspective, if the stock market is going up during a particular time period, it is said to be a bull market.

In contrast to bullish, If you are expecting the prices of stocks to go down, it is said that you are bearish on these stocks. From a broader perspective, if the stock market is going down during a particular time period, it is said to be a bear market. Long position or simply a long refers to the direction of your trade. For example, if you are buying a stock of a company, it is said that you are going long on that company. If you are already holding stocks of the company, it is said that you are long on that company.

Similar to a long position, a short position, or simply a short also refers to the direction of your trade. For example, if you are selling a stock without owning it, it is said that you are going short on the stock. Or you are short-selling the stock. If you have already sold the stock, it is referred to as you are short on the stock. Square off refers to exiting an existing position, buy or sell, any. If you are long on a stock, squaring off a position means, you sell the existing bought stock and nullify your position.

If you are short on a stock, squaring off would require you to buy the stock in order to neutralise your position. Volume refers to the total number of transactions buy and sell put together for a particular time period. If the daily volume of the stock THM is 1. For example, if you have a daily price dataset of a particular stock from to , each data point each day would have four prices referring to Open price, High price, Low price and Close price. Often times, this data can also have volume as a part of it.

Trends refers to the particular direction in the prices of a security. If the prices are moving in an upward direction over a period of time, it can be said that the security is in the uptrend. If the prices are moving in a downward direction, the security is said to be in a downtrend. Arbitrage is the process of simultaneously transacting in multiple financial securities to make a profit from the difference in prices.

This can be done in various ways such as:. Arbitrage is a risk-free strategy, although this is not always the case. There is always a possibility of execution risk , i. Other risks involved are counterparty risk and liquidity risk. An order is an instruction by an investor or a trader to a broker or a brokerage firm or directly to the trading venue exchange to buy or sell securities like stocks, bonds or derivatives.

Most common types of orders are limit order and market order. Portfolio is a collection of financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, cash equivalents, funds held by an individual, investment company or financial institution. An investment portfolio can be regarded as a pie which is divided into various parts, each representing a financial instrument with an objective of achieving a particular level of risk and return.

She is a financial therapist and is globally-recognized as a leading personal finance and cryptocurrency subject matter expert and educator. What are the financial markets? It can be confusing because they go by many terms. They include capital markets, Wall Street , and even simply "the markets.

These include stocks, bonds, derivatives, foreign exchange, and commodities. The markets are where businesses go to raise cash to grow. Most people think about the stock market when talking about financial markets. They don't realize there are many kinds that accomplish different goals. Markets exchange a variety of products to help raise liquidity.

Each market relies on each other to create confidence in investors. The interconnectedness of these markets means that when one suffers, other markets will react accordingly. This market is a series of exchanges where successful corporations go to raise large amounts of cash to expand. Stocks are forms of ownership of a public corporation that are sold to investors through broker-dealers.

The investors profit when companies increase their earnings. This keeps the U. It's easy to buy stocks , but it takes a lot of knowledge to buy stocks in the right company. To a lot of people, the Dow is the stock market. The Dow is the nickname for the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which is just one way of tracking the performance of a particular group of stocks.

The market depends on the perceptions, actions, and decisions of both buyers and sellers concerning the profitability of the companies being traded. Mutual funds give you the ability to buy a lot of stocks at once. In a way, this makes them an easier tool to invest in than individual stocks.

By reducing stock market volatility, they have also had a calming effect on the U. Despite their benefits, you still need to learn how to select a good mutual fund. When organizations need to obtain very large loans, they go to the bond market. When stock prices go up, bond prices tend to go down.

There are many different types of bonds , including Treasury Bonds, corporate bonds, and municipal bonds. Bonds also provide some of the liquidity that keeps the U. It's important to understand the relationship between Treasury bonds and Treasury bond yields. When Treasury bond values go down, the yields go up to compensate.

When Treasury yields rise, so do mortgage interest rates. Even worse, when Treasury values decline, so does the value of the dollar. That makes import prices rise, which can trigger inflation. Treasury yields can also predict the future. For example, an inverted yield curve heralds a recession. A commodity market is where companies offset their futures risks when buying or selling natural resources. Since the prices of things like oil, corn, and gold are so volatile, companies can lock in a known price today.

Since these exchanges are public, many investors also trade in commodities for profit only. For example, most investors have no intention of taking shipments of large quantities of pork bellies. Oil is the most important commodity in the U. It is used for transportation, industrial products, plastics, heating, and electricity generation. When oil prices rise, you'll see the effect in gas prices about a week later.

If oil and gas prices stay high, you'll see the impact on food prices in about six weeks. The commodities futures market determines the price of oil. Futures are a way to pay for something today that is delivered tomorrow. They increase a trader's leverage by allowing him or her to borrow the money to purchase the commodity. The futures market removes some of the volatility in the U.

It allows businesses to control the future costs of the critical commodities they use every day. Leverage can create outsize gains if traders guess right. It also magnifies the losses if traders guess wrong. If enough traders guess wrong, it can have a huge impact on the U. Another important commodity is gold. It's bought as a hedge against inflation.

Gold prices also go up when there is a lot of economic uncertainty in the world.

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Lecture 37: Financial Market, Importance and its Function, Financial Intermediaries, Money Market financial market and investment

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