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The information will be used in selecting control measures for the project and typically should be included in or referenced by the ESCP. DID, Developing a base plan; the designer will generally prepare a site analysis as either a formal document or as an information plan. The site analysis should review the physical conditions of the site and adjacent areas, the site constraints and applicable zoning and development requirements. Selecting post construction measures; Permanent control measures are the final improvements to and configuration of the project which are designed to control long term stormwater pollution.
The unforeseen natural or man-made factors may require revisions to or additions of permanent controls during the construction phase. Permanent controls are typically integrated with the normal project features. In the planning phase, it is important to indicate the maintenance responsibility for the permanent controls. During construction, the contractor must ensure that the permanent BMPs are installed properly and that any maintenance that may be necessary during construction is performed.
After the project is complete, it will be the responsibility of the owner, private or public, to provide for long-term operation and maintenance. Establishing long term maintenance agreements; the local authority may have an established policy defining maintenance responsibilities for community infrastructure and may require a maintenance agreement as a condition of approval of a master plan.
Two fundamental choices exist for post construction operation and maintenance of stormwater infrastructure. A maintenance programme for the control facilities shall be prepared that includes plans for the removal and disposal of materials from the control facilities in the project area. All erosion and sediment control measures shall be constructed and maintained by the Contractor. Cleared vegetation and debris should be disposed off in designated spoil tips, which must be approved by the Site Officer.
The Contractor shall be responsible for identifying these disposal areas. The disposal areas are to be finalized before any earthworks are allowed to be carried out on site. DID stated that the ESCP must be prepared before construction begins, ideally during the project planning and design phases. It may be completed at the end of the design phases or early in the construction phase. Implementation of the ESCP begins when construction begins typically before the initial clearing, grubbing and grading operations since these activities usually increase erosion potential on the site.
During construction, the ESCP should be referred to frequently and refined by the owner and contractor as changes occur in construction operations which have significant effects on the potential for discharge of pollutants. The basin for erosion and sediment control decisions is also made at this phase via the normal review process with the Local Authority.
The construction documentation should specify what the responsibilities of the owner and contractor are with regard to water quality control, before, during and after construction. Complete the ESCP All of the necessary planning work has been done during the site planning and design process. The final step consists of consolidating the pertinent information and developing it into a specific ESCP for the project.
The ESCP should be directed at personnel involved in the construction project. The ESCP should provide specific guidance on actions to be taken by these personnel and should be presented in a format which accommodates day to day use. Train personnel Training of construction personnel is imperative to the success of the BMPs plan.
Adequate training is required for BMPs to be properly installed and maintained to perform their intended function. Because the site conditions will inevitably vary during construction, the ESCP should be revised as necessary, with any changes highlighted on the copy maintained at the construction site. Complete construction Permanent water quality control BMPs should be properly installed according to the construction plans and specifications with responsible parties designated for operation and maintenance and funds committed to long term maintenance needs.
Construction phases DID, Bidding and mobilisation During bidding and mobilisation, the owner selects the contractors who in turn plans and prepares to construct the project according to the construction plans and specifications. At the start of a construction project, it may be more appropriate to inspect the BMPs on a regular basis instead of just before and after a storm. This should allow sufficient time for any corrections and improvements to be made between storm events.
For contractor activity BMPs, the monitoring Design phase DID, There are three principal activities that are typically incorporated into the ESCP during the design phase: Preparing a project site plan; numerous studies, reports and documents are typically prepared during preliminary and final design as the basis for many documents about the project. A Hydrology report, drainage study or similar document is typically required as part of project infrastructure design.
Such a study may be required by the local authority as a condition of approval of a project master plan for land development or as part of improvement plans or concept plans for public projects. A soil report based upon site soil sampling is normally prepared to identify soil constraints, design criteria and slope stability.
Both these reports should be used by the engineer to prepare the preliminary grading and drainage plan. The preliminary site plan includes several items which are required for the ESCP; locations of building and paved areas, proposed flow paths: on site flow paths where erosion during construction may occur and erosion and sediment control BMPs should be applied locations where runoff will leave the site, diversion of or conveyance for upstream runoff , locations of flood control facilities and permanent structural BMPs, approximate locations where cut and fill will occur, Access points for construction traffic, Areas where existing vegetation may be preserved, Area to be paved.
Defining objectives for control measures; during the final project design process, the engineer, architect or landscape architect will prepare detailed grading plans, paving and drainage plans, landscape plans and other plans as necessary for the successful construction of the project. These plans provide the construction design requirements, specifications and other construction documents necessary for construction bidding, permitting and inspection.
Designing permanent water quality control measures. It is suggested that records of incidents such as spills or other episodic release be kept. Analysing a history of this information can provide insight into modifying the BMPs. Efforts can be focused accordingly. A record should be kept of maintenance activities or any other BMPs that are of an action nature. It is easy to demonstrate that a BMPs involving a physical change such as berm or covering, has been accomplished, but actions that relate to good housekeeping can only be demonstrated by record keeping.
Keeping a record of sediment trap cleaning, for examples also provides insight into how soon it takes for the trap to refill, DID, Plan review and modifications During the course of construction, unanticipated changes may occur which affect the ESCP, such as schedule changes, phasing changes, staging area modifications, off-site drainage impacts and repeated failures of designed controls.
During the preparation and review of the modified ESCP, construction may continue with temporary modifications to the erosion and sediment control BMPs. Revisions to the ESCP are also required when the properly installed systems are ineffective in preventing silt transport off the site. Select species appropriate for soil, drainage, and acidity.
Other factors that should be considered are wind exposure, temperature extremes, and irrigation needs. Shrubs and trees must be adequately watered, fertilised, and pruned if needed. Grasses may need to be watered and mowed. Select grasses that are tolerant of short —term temperature extremes and waterlogged soil conditions. Soil must be fertilised and mechanically stabilised. Use in shallow-based soils with good drainage and ground slope of 2 H :1 V or flatter. Grasses develop well and quickly from seeds.
Mowing, irrigating, and fertilising are vital for promoting vigorous grass growth. Grasses may also be planted for temporary stabilisation. Figure 4. Open space cut and fill areas. Steep slopes. Spoil stockpiles. Vegetated swales. Landscaped corridors. Stream banks. Mulching can be used either to temporarily or permanently stabilise cleared or freshly seeded areas. Types of mulches include organic materials, straw, wood chips, bark or other wood fibers, decomposed granite, and gravel.
A variety of mats of organic or inorganic materials and chemical stabilisation may be used with mulches. Suitable Applications Figure 4. Mattings reduce erosion from rainfall impact, hold soil in place, and absorb and hold moisture near the soil surface.
Additionally, mattings may be used alone or with a mulch during the establishment of protective cover on critical slopes. Suitable Applications: Typically suited for permanent site stabilisation, but may be used for temporary stabilisation of highly erosive soils for example Channels and streams, Steep slopes. The following organic matting materials provide temporary protection until permanent vegetation is established, or when circumstances dictate the need for temporary stabilisation until weather or construction delays are resolved.
Maintenance Requirements Inspect monthly and after significant rainfall. Re-anchor loosened matting and replace missing matting and staples as required. Must be inspected weekly and after rain for damage or deterioration. Temporary stabilisation during periods unsuitable for growing vegetation. Temporary stabilisation of areas that cannot be seeded or planted e.
Mulches such as gravel and decomposed soils may be used as permanent BMPs. Organic mulch materials such as straw, wood chips, bark, and wood fiber, are most effective where re-vegetation will be provided by reseeding. The choice of mulch should be based on the size of the area, site slopes, surface conditions such as hardness and moisture , weed growth, and availability of mulch materials.
May be used with netting to supplement soil stabilisation. Apply to planting areas where slopes are 2 H :1 V or greater. Binders may be required for steep areas, or if wind and runoff is a problem. Temporary stabilisation of freshly seeded and planted areas. Earth banks may also be used to divert runoff from off-site and from undisturbed areas away from disturbed areas, and to divert sheet flow s away from unprotected slopes. An earth bank does not in itself control erosion or remove sediment from runoff, it prevents erosion by directing runoff to an erosion control device such as a sediment trap or basin or directing runoff away from and erodible area.
Temporary earth banks should not adversely impact adjacent properties and must conform to any local floodplain management regulations. Suitable Applications: Earth banks are typically used to divert concentrated runoff through disturbed areas into another BMP, to divert runoff away from disturbed or unstable slopes, to divert runoff from off-site and undisturbed areas around disturbed areas, and as a containment for construction materials and wastes.
The banks should remain in place until the disturbed areas are permanently stabilised. The banks must be on-site and must safely convey anticipated flood flows. Suitable Applications A temporary diversion channel should be provided at the top of a cut or fill slope to safely divert runoff to a location where it can be safely brought to the bottom of the slope.
They are more effective than earth banks because they tend to be more stable. Temporary diversion channels will effectively convey runoff and avoid erosion if built properly. Inspect periodically and after every significant rainfall. Repair as necessary Prevent slope failures.
Prevent damage to adjacent property Prevent erosion and transport of sediments into waterways. Increase the potential for infiltration. Divert sediment-laden runoff into trapping devices. Earth banks may create more disturbed areas on site and become barriers to construction equipment. Earth banks must be stabilised immediately, which adds cost and maintenance concerns. Diverted stormwater may cause downstream flood damage.
Banks should be not be constructed of soils which may be easily eroded. For larger areas, more permanent drainage structures should be built. All drainage structures should be built in compliance with the requirements of the Local Authority. Limitations Figure 4. All banks should be compacted by earth-moving equipment. All banks should have positive drainage to a stabilised outlet.
Banks should direct sediment-laden runoff into a sediment trapping device. Banks should be stabilised with vegetation, chemicals, or physical devices. A permanent diversion channel must be designed by a professional engineer. The catchment area for a diversion channel should not exceed 2 hectares. At a minimum, the channel should conform to predevelopment drainage patterns and capacities. Construct the channel with an uninterrupted, positive longitudinal grade to a stabilised outlet.
The longitudinal grade should be at least 0. Side slopes should be 2 H :1 V or flatter. Inspect weekly and after each rainfall. Repair any erosion immediately. Remove sediment, which builds up in the channel and restricts its flow capacity.
Wherever discharge velocities and energies at the outlets of culverts, conduits, or channels are sufficient to erode the next downstream reach. Rock outlet protection is best suited for temporary use during construction because it is usually less expensive and easier to install than concrete aprons or energy dissipaters. A sediment trap below the drainage outlet is recommended if runoff is sediment -laden. Permanent rock riprap protection should be designed and sized by an engineer as part of the culvert, conduit, or channel design.
Maintenance Requirements Maintenance Requirements Rock outlet protection is effective when the rock is sized and placed properly. When this is accomplished, rock outlets do much to limit erosion at pipe outlets. Rock size should be increased for high velocity flows. The best results are obtained when sound, durable, angular rock is used. Grouted or wire-tied rock riprap can minimize maintenance requirements.
Temporary Bridge Crossing: A temporary access bridge causes the least erosion of the stream channel crossing when the bridge is installed and removed. It also provides the least obstruction to flow and fish migration. Provided that the bridge is properly designed and appropriate materials are used, a temporary access bridge typically is long lasting and requires little maintenance.
However, a temporary bridge crossing is generally the most expensive crossing to design and construct. It also creates the greatest safety hazard if not adequately designed, installed, and maintained. Maintenance Requirements 4. The purpose of a temporary crossing is to provide a safe, erosion-free access point across a waterway for construction equipment.
An engineer should establish minimum standards and specifications for the design, construction, maintenance, and removal of the structure. Crossings may be necessary to prevent construction equipment from causing erosion of the waterway and tracking of pollutants into the waterway.
There are two main temporary access waterway crossings that are generally constructed: Figure 4. Check dams should be of sufficient height and spacing to allow small pools to form between each one. Backwater from a downstream check dam should reach the toe of the upstream check dam.
Flows of 2-year ARI or larger should safely flow over the check dam without an increase in upstream flooding or destruction of the check dam. Use in steep terrain to reduce flow velocities A deep sump may be provided immediately upstream of the check dam to capture excessive sediment. Check dams may be built of rocks or logs, which are secured against damage during significant floods.
Maintenance Requirements Inspect for sediment buildup and signs of erosion around the check dam after each rainfall. Remove accumulated sediment whenever it reaches one-third of the height of the dam, or one-half of the sump depth if a sump is provided.
Used to prevent erosion by reducing the velocity of channel flow in small intermittent channels and temporary swales. May also promote sedimentation behind the dam, but should not be considered to be a primary sediment trapping device because subsequent storms will scour and re-suspend much of the trapped sediment.
Suitable Applications Where construction equipment or vehicles need to frequently cross a waterway. When alternate access routes that do not cross streams impose significant constraints to the project. Construction activities will not last longer than one year. Temporary Culvert Crossing: A temporary access culvert is the most common stream crossing.
It can control erosion effectively, but can cause erosion when it is installed and removed. A temporary culvert can be easily constructed and enables heavy equip- ment loads to be used. However, culverts create the greatest obstruction to flood flows and are subject to blockage and washout. Inspect weekly and after each significant rainfall, including assessment of foundations.
Periodically remove silt, debris, from crossings and surroundings. Replace lost aggregate from inlets and outlets of culverts. Remove the crossing when it is no longer required. Rehabilitate the area following the vegetation management plan or other site rehabilitation plan Maintenance Requirements Maintenance Requirements Planning Consideration Temporary waterway crossings should be installed at all designated crossings of perennial and intermittent waterways on the construction site, as well as for dry channels which may be significantly eroded by construction traffic.
A crossing may be required: 4. Check dams reduce the velocity of concentrated stormwater flows, thereby reducing erosion of the diversion channel or swale and promoting sedimentation behind the dam. For temporary crossings of streams with large catchments, the crossing may also be designed based on the low-flow channel conditions as a low water crossing. The culvert size would be adequate to convey base flows, but high water events would overtop the structure and make the crossing temporarily unusable.
Sediment fences should remain in place until the disturbed area is permanently stabilised. Posts should be spaced a maximum of 1. A trench should be excavated approximately mm wide and mm deep along the line of posts and upslope from the barrier. The use of joints should be avoided. When joints are necessary, filter cloth should be spliced together only at a support post, with a minimum mm overlap and both ends securely fastened to the post. The trench should be backfilled with 20mm minimum diameter washed gravel or compacted native material.
The ends of the filter fence should be turned uphill to prevent stormwater from flowing around the fence. Provide an undisturbed or stabilised outlet suitable for sheet flow. Sediment Basins refer Section 4. Along the perimeter of the site at locations where sediment -laden runoff is discharged off-site. At any point within the site where sediment laden runoff can enter stabilised or natural areas or waterways.
Suitable Applications Inspect weekly and after each rainfall. Repair wherever fence is damaged. Remove sediment when it reaches one-third of the height of the fence. A supply of sediment control fence should be kept on site to provide for quick repairs or the installation of an additional fence as required. If any section of silt fence is knocked down frequently because it was installed in an area of concentrated flow then other measures such as a sediment trap and diversion or super silt fence must be given consideration and installed as replacement Maintenance Requirements 4.
This measure does NOT filter runoff, but acts as a linear barrier creating upstream ponding which allows soil particles to settle out thereby reducing the amount of soil leaving a disturbed area. The silt control fence also decreases the velocity of sheet flow and low to moderate level concentrated flows.
They are relatively effective at retaining suspended solids coarser than 0. They are simple to construct, relatively inexpensive and easily moved as development progresses. It is intended for use on small catchment areas, with usual drainage features, where construction will be completed in a reasonably short period of time.
It should help in removing coarse sediment from runoff. Locate where sediment can be easily removed. The length to width ratio should be greater than The outlet of the trap must be stabilised with rock, vegetation, or another suitable material. The area under the embankment must be cleared, grubbed, and stripped of any vegetation and root mat.
The pool area should be cleared. The fill material for the embankment must be free of roots and other woody vegetation as well as oversized stones, rocks, organic material, or other objectionable matter. The embankment may be compacted by traversing with equipment during construction.
A stable emergency spillway must be installed to safely convey flows up to and including 10 year ARI. Construct before clearing and grading work begins. Basins must not be located in a stream. All basins should be located where failure of the embankment would not result in loss of life, damage to homes or buildings, or interruption of use or service of public roads or utilities.
Local ordinances regarding health and safety must be adhered to. Sediment traps are attractive to children and can be very dangerous. Adequate safety precautions must be provided by restricting access to the site or access to the basin with suitable fencing. The basin length to settling depth ratio should be less than The basin length to width ratio should be greater than If not , baffles should be provided to prevent short-circuiting. Side slopes should not be steeper than 2 H :1 V to prevent sloughing.
Sediment basins may be capable of trapping smaller sediment particles if sufficient detention time is provided. However, they are most effective when used in conjunction with other BMPs to minimise the amount of sediment mobilised and carried to the basin.
Sizing of Sediment Traps At the outlet of all disturbed catchment areas greater than 2 hectares. At the outlet of smaller disturbed catchment areas, as necessary. Where permanent detention basins or water quality control structures will be located. Should be used in association with earth banks, diversion channels pipes, and other measures used to divert disturbed areas into the basin and divert undisturbed areas around the basin.
Remove sediment when the sediment storage zone is no more than mm from being full. It is intended to trap sediment before it leaves the construction site. The basin is a temporary measure with a design life of 12 to 18 months and is to be maintained until the site area is permanently protected against erosion or a permanent detention basin or water quality control structure is constructed.
Sediment basins are suitable for nearly all types of construction projects. Wherever possible, sediment basins should be constructed before clearing and grading work begins. To provide the appropriate design for both kinds of sediment basins i. To highlight the best control measure among many control measures To provide water quality monitoring plan and identifying the pollution sources and recommendations. To provide site inspection plan and provide recommendations whenever necessary.
The basin should have shallow side slopes maximum 4 H :1 V or be fenced to prevent drowning. Sites with very fine sediment fine silt and clay may require longer detention times for effective sediment removal. Standing water may cause mosquitoes or other pests to breed. Limitations The management and operation of sediment basins also depends primarily on the nature of the soil materials likely to be eroded and washed into the basin.
The application of BMPs facilities involves a variety of stakeholders in both public and private arenas and therefore their development and design can be subject to differing degrees of uncertainty with regard to the relevance of influencing political, technical and environmental factors. In addition to being effective in terms of long term efficiency, they also need to be cost-effective when compared with conventional systems.
Figure 5. General; Inspect weekly and after each rainfall. Remove sediment when the sediment storage zone becomes full. Dry Sediment Basins; A properly designed and maintained dry sediment basin should drain naturally after heavy rain, through the embankment or outlet riser. Wet Sediment Basins; In the case of wet sediment basins, the captured stormwater in the settling zone should be drained or pumped out within the five day period following rainfall, provided that an acceptable water quality has been achieved.
A software targeted to minimise erosion and sedimentation due to stormwater in Malaysian construction sites. Movement of larger landmasses can range from rapid to very slow. Rapidly moving landslides or debris flows pose the greatest risk to human life, and people living in or traveling through areas prone to rapidly moving landslides are at increased risk of serious injury or worse.
Slow moving landslides can cause significant property damage, but are less likely to result in serious human injuries. Translational where movement occurs along a relatively planar dipping surface , Rotational where sliding material moves along a curved surface or Wedge where movement occurs on a wedge-shaped block formed by intersecting planes of weakness, such as fractures, faults and bedding. The size of a landslide usually depends on the geology and the initial cause of the landslide.
Landslides vary greatly in their volume of rock and soil, the length, width, and depth of the area affected. Shallow slides are generally about 15 feet or less in depth and involve the near surface soil, and possibly the underlying weathered bedrock. Deeper slides most often consist of bedrock blocks, either severely broken or relatively intact, depending on the bedrock structure and mode of failure. Landslides can be initiated by rainfall, earthquakes, volcanic activity, changes in ground water, disturbance and change of a slope by man-made construction activities, or any combination of these factors.
Landslides can also occur underwater, causing large waves that could damage low-ying coastal areas. The potential for slope failure is dependent on many factors, including slope height, slope steepness, shear strength and orientation of the underlying geologic unit, as well as moisture content. For example, water can increase the plasticity of weak clays lining joints or shears, forming planes of weakness along which a landmass can fail. Examples are heavy rain, snowmelt changes in groundwater level and Earthquakes or volcanic activities: Creation of new site conditions such as changes to natural slope due to construction activities.
Man-made Cause; These are human activities on slopes such as Construction done without proper engineering inputs, Farming practices, Removal of vegetation cover and deforestation, etc. These activities may cause increase in slope gradient or significant change in surface and ground water regimes adding to the instability of slopes. Excavations or cut increase the slope angle fill operations carried out without specialist advice. Mining, blasting rock or reclamation of land can also destabilise slopes.
Farming activities on slopes involve removal of vegetation cover usually followed by terracing. Sometimes, farmers burn down vegetation as a convenient method of clearing land for cultivation. Commercial logging results in deforestation. These activities increase surface run-off of rainwater and expose the soil to erosion. Changes in water regime results from raising or lowering of ground water table. Alteration of surface drainage can also be a contributory factor. Irrigation alters natural surface drainage.
Surface runoff of irrigated water on slopes exposes soil under cultivation to erosion. Part of this water is absorbed by soil increasing its weight, which can put an additional load on the slope. Seepage and accumulation of irrigated water on slopes can raise the ground water table. This can also result from wastewater discharge, water pipe leakage from permanent and temporary storage facilities such as ponds and subsurface irrigation facilities.
Human activity can also lead to the lowering of the water table. Pumping from underlined water Supply wells, rapid lowering of water level in rivers, lakes or reservoirs can bring about lowering of the water table under soil. Natural factors; There are several natural factors that can cause slope failures such as intense rainfall or deposition of snow will raise the ground water table; decrease the soil strength and increases weight of associated material, rapid snowmelt in mountains-rapid melting of snow adds water to soil mass on slopes, fluctuation of water levels due to the tidal action, lowering of the water levels in rivers, reservoirs, etc, erosion caused by continuous runoff over a slope.
The removal of toe and lateral support of a soil mass by flow of water in streams, rivers, wave action etc. Rock Fall: Free falling of detached bodies of bedrock boulders from a cliff or steep slope Rock Slide: Sudden down slope movement of detached masses of bedrock is called a rockslide. Debris Fall: Free falling is not only rock but also overlying sediments and vegetation is known as debris fall Creep: Imperceptibly slow down slope movement of earth cove or regolith.
Utility poles, fence posts and gravestones etc. Debris Flow: Down slope movement of collapsed, unconsolidated material typically along a stream channel Intercept Under Drains and Interceptor Trench Drains: These systems are most useful to remove shallow ground water from up to 3m from the ground surface. The interceptor under drains contains impervious sheets at the bottom of the trench, and the gravels are wrapped with filter fabric and the drains are connected at groundsills and catch basin.
Structurally, the interceptor trench drain is a combination of the interceptor under drain and surface drainage control. Horizontal Gravity Drains: In order to remove the shallow groundwater within about 3m from ground surface, 30 to 50 m-long horizontal gravity drains are drilled. The pipes could be either perforated P. Drainage Wells; Drainage wells of up to 25m deep and at least 3. A series of radially-positioned horizontal gravity drains with multi-levels are drilled to collect the ground water into the drainage wells where the water can be removed through drainage tunnels.
They are constructed of either steel or reinforced concrete segment, and concrete is used at the well bottoms and the upper portion of the well. Drainage Tunnels; The primary purpose of the drainage tunnels which are constructed below the slide plane is to remove collected water out of the landslide mass by interconnecting the drainage wells. Instead of excavating the drainage wells from the ground surface, they can be constructed upward from the drainage tunnels. The series of gravity drains drilled from the tunnel tends to increase the effectiveness of the drain system.
This is the most effective and reliable drainage work where numerous ground water veins exist within the landslide mass. Furthermore, this work is effective to maintain existing facilities. Generally, the diameter of the tunnel is between 1. The surface drainage control works include two major works: drainage collection works and drainage channel works. The drainage collection works are designed to collect surface flow by installing corrugated half pipes or lined U-ditches along the slopes, and then connected to the drainage channel.
The drainage channel works are designed to remove the collected water out of the landslide zone as quickly as possible, and are constructed from the same materials as the drainage collection works b Subsurface Drainage Control Works The purpose of the subsurface drainage control works is to remove the ground water within the landslide mass and to prevent the inflow of ground water into the landslide mass from outside sources.
The subsurface drainage control works include shallow and deep subsurface drainage control works. Except for special cases, the soil removal is focused on the head portion the slide. It is most effective if the soils generated by the soil removal works are used. In such cases, check dams, groundsills and bank protection can be constructed to prevent further erosion. Generally, a thick walled steel pipe is used as the pile, and is then filled with concrete.
W, et. However it involves much larger diameters. The construction is similar to the drainage well, and generally consists of pile of 1. Compared to the piles, the large diameter cast-in-place type are much more resistant to bending stresses. The thrust blocks are anchored with a tendon that counteracts the driving forces of the landslide to restrain the slide movement.
The advantage is that large restraint forces can be obtained from a relatively small cross sectional tendon. Because of the large-scale earth-movement and numerous springs that are expected in landslide terrain, crib walls are common instead of conventional reinforced concrete retaining walls.
Those topographic characteristics can be interpreted from aerial photographs and topographic maps, and be verified through field reconnaissance. Furthermore, bedrock landslides and weathered bedrock landslides with past movement at the time of sliding is small, and sheared bedrock and topographic features related to the early stages of sliding that were subjected to creep deformation in the deeper portions often do not exhibit clear landslide topographic characteristics.
Because of these reasons, double ridge topography associated with mountain deformation, parting ridges, breaks-in-slope, knick lines, distribution of old and scarps, bulging at the tip of ridge lines, discrepancy in the geologic distribution following the investigation, geologic structure degree of shearing degree of creep and other factors must be considered when evaluating landslide topography.
Based on the change in the rate of movement, the following three methods are commonly used to predict the timing of landslide movement. The guideline addressed the issues of planning and development in highland on slopes, natural waterways and water catchment areas Abdullah et al. The guideline considered the angle of natural slopes, type of terrain, type of activities, previous slip history, severity of erosion, etc. Class I is the least severe in terms of terrain grading where slope angles are less than Slopes with angles greater than are classified as class IV which poses the highest risk.
Since the formulation of such a terrain classification by JMG, no development has been allowed in areas with class IV slopes. Apart from this, there are also numerous other guidelines and regulations related to slope management from the following governmental and private agencies;- However, some of these guidelines and regulations are unclear and do not cover safety enhancement, slope stability and protection, environment friendliness and sustainability of engineering project.
Furthermore the responsibility of the submitting professional engineer on the supervision of work also includes supervision for subsurface investigation. Relentless rainfalls over few days weaken the natural or man-made slope and reduce its capability to resist shear stress.
It causes the natural slope to fail and flows downward carrying together the vegetation and habitat above ground. In Pos Dipang and Keningau incidents, it destroys both properties and assets of the house owners located along the pathway. It destroys plantation crops and alters the natural environment.
Some landslide in Malaysia involves the rock fall or earth flow that deposited at roads and highways. In some incidents in urban area, it causes huge structure such as multi-story condominium to collapse due to the weakened foundation. Others the earth flow buried the properties and human or damages to the properties.
Hence the landslide consequences varied spatially. The second major element contributing landslide in Malaysia is unplanned housing at steep hill sides. The urban landslide events mostly related to human activities i. Traditionally, risk management models comprises of four stages: risk identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk management. This paper focuses on the identification of potential affected elements from landslide incidence.
The monetary losses can be estimated based on value of properties and assets, potential earnings and other indirect losses. The direct costs are cost that directly related to loss of life and properties.
Indirect cost looks into the cost associate with the consequences of landslide damage such as cost of maintaining evacuation centers, medical costs and loss of potential earnings. Review of incidents of landslide in Malaysia indicates that there are three main occurrence categories: i rural or semi-rural areas adjacent to forest, ii urban or semi urban setting at housing development adjacent to hilly area and iii infrastructures: highway and hilly roads. The element at risk and consequences of landslide vary for these three categories.
In rural setting, the population will include human and livestock; the economic activities include planting of crops, livestock farming, the cost of property is lesser as compare with urban setting. In urban setting, it comprises higher property losses, infrastructure losses and economic losses. There are elements applicable to both rural and urban settings However, some of these guidelines and regulations are unclear and do not cover safety enhancement, slope stability and protection, environment friendliness and sustainability of engineering project.
Furthermore, the guideline proposed by JMG may seem be comprehensive, but it is too complicated for implementation by the approving authority as it is subjected to various interpretation. Therefore, a simplified version is urgently needed. In , under its own initiative, IEM has formulated policies and procedures for mitigating the risk of landslides for hill side development. IEM stated that the developments are proposed to be classified into three classes.
Depending on the classification of risk for the slope, necessary approval requirements have been laid down. The proposed classification of IEM is based on the geometry of the slope such as height and angle for simplicity of implementation by non-technical personnel in our local authorities. In order to make the implementation of the classification easier, simple geometry has been selected as the basis for risk classi- fication.
However, after the major landslide incident at Bukit Antarabangsa on December , the Selangor government during the executive council committee meeting on April decided to ban all development on Class III and IV slopes. As such, Selangor became the first and only state in country where no housing development is allowed on slopes with gradient steeper than Slope Engineering Practices on Hill side development As hill site development has gained in popularity, good practice for slope engineering and slope management is vital for the formation of safe slopes both during construc- tion and throughout the service life of the structure.
There- fore, sound engineering practice is required on all stages of implementation from planning, analysis, design, construction to maintenance. Based on ACT , the street, Drainage and Building Act , and the Uniform Building by Law , it is the responsibility of the submitting professional engineer to supervise the construction work. The submitting professional for the work should certify various stages of completion including setting, completion of foundations and certificate of fitness for occupation.
The identification of elements at risk depends on the demarcation of landslide susceptibility zone and classification of high, moderate and low vulnerability level. Hazard mapping is useful in this context. It is useful to introduce also the environment impacts which include forest, flora and fauna, heritage and cultural items.
Under the population at risk PAR element, one needs to include both human and animal population. The itinerants are people that work at that area or pass by that area. It needs to consider both legal and illegal occupants. Animal population includes pets. The number of human population at risk and demographic distribution is important for risk management planning, evacuation exercise and awareness campaign.
Assessing the PAR is a difficult task. In Malaysia, the main source of reference from Department of Statistic, local authority including district office. The loss of life can be estimated using few models including Value of statically life VSL.
VSL defines as a trade-off between monetary wealth and fatality safety risk. Other option is using the average value of medical treatment and pain and suffering. Other cost associate with loss of life is funeral expenses. The indirect cost to this element includes the loss of potential earning due to injury or stop-work, permanent disability.
In the case of rural categories, the livestock population is another critical sector to be considered especially in developing or under-developed countries. In Malaysia, the livestock includes cattle, poultry, goats, swine that are of econom- ic value to population at risk. The threat of disease from dead carcass is another potential risk in landslide occur- rences. Landslide caused private and public properties damage.
It includes the properties that are totally or partially destroyed and also property damage due to the soil movement. In Malaysia, the type of residential properties located at landslide prone zone ranges from high end property eg. Bungalows to low cost housing like squatters. It includes the contents of the property i.
The cost of landslide to property can be estimated based on the cost to reconstruct the damaged properties or cost of repair the properties. Another item is the cost of structural repair from the buildings located at a far distance from landslide area but is affected by the soil movement. In rural categories, the cost of properties shall include land values. Land resource is the agricultural value of the land. Indirect cost of landslide occurrence in term of properties is the provision of temporary housing supply e.
When landslide occurs at commercial, agricultural or industrial zone, the direct cost of damages is from losses of productivity and reduces in production. It can affect tourism industry. Estimation of the losses can be conducted based on type of industries. In the tourism industry sectors, indirect cost are from temporary fall in income drawn from hotel occupancy and income of enterprises and cost in enhancement of promotion campaigns. The public services shall include the physical infrastructures in the provision of public services such as buildings and their content.
The disruption of the services rendered due to landslide is another criterion. The damage cost includes the cost of repairing and reconstruction of the buildings. The cost of public services including the loss of potential income through service provided. In terms of public utilities sector, landslide might damage power and communication systems or public utility such as water and sanitation systems. Cost of damage shall cover repairing or reconstruction of such public facilities.
Another item is the relocation costs for telecommunication towers and power transmission towers. In terms of health facilities, the indirect cost is the increase in preventive campaign costs and treatment cost of epidemics or infective diseases outbreak In the infrastructure categories, the cost of repairing highways or roads to their formal condition shall be the cost of damage.
The indirect cost of highway damages include the cost of longer transportation time for delivering goods and commute time for workers. The damage to the tropical forests and flora and fauna due to landslide is incomprehensible. Malaysia is home to various tropical hardwood and various species of animals, insects etc. The losses can be estimated qualitatively. The indirect cost can be in terms of the loss of potential earning from selling such hardwoods.
Environmental cleaning up is also another source of indirect damage costs. Cultural heritage such as heritage building, historical artifacts and cemetery should be part of environmentallosses due to landslide. Table 3 shows some of identified elements landslide consequences Landslides not only cause property and economic losses, it also causes intangible damage to the community. In the initial weeks after the event, the survivors of landslide will experience distress including anxiety, distressing memories, sleep disturbance, nightmares and restlessness.
In some cases however, affected communi- ty will suffer depression, anger and conflict and strained interpersonal relationship due to long-term unemployment from economic infrastructures damages. The first tragic landslides tragedy happened in Hulu Kelang area are the Highland Tower landslide. It happened on 11 December and caused 48 deaths, toppled one block 16 stories condominium.
Another tragic landslide disaster, occur just a few meters away from the highland tower landslides on 20th November It caused death of 8 people and ruined a two stories bungalow. While on 31st October , one more tragic landslides disaster also happened in Hulu Klang which caused death of 4 people and damaged 3 blocks long house, the Zoo View-Kampung Pasir landslides occurred in 31st October According to the case study, landslides were occurred due to unsuitable design approached adopted and site construction method.
Cut and fill method has been used in the Hill Tower and Zoo View development. In this construction technique, it needs retaining wall to support the land form. In all three cases, the retaining wall failed to withstand the lateral load caused from the land movement underground.
In the highland tower, retrogressive slides occur due to the unsettlement of landfill on the development area. In the Hill View and Zoo View development, debris flow slides were occurred due to construction or development activity at the above level of the site, debris were flow and hit the building at the lower level.
Existing water stream in Highland tower and Zoo view development were diverted away from the existing route flow, in order to construct a new platform level. Times after times, the man made water stream will slowly flow as its original route. And this introduce massive load to the retaining wall and induce to failures of the retaining wall.
The situation happened in the Zoo View landslides: the construction activities above the hill view failed and the debris hit on the bungalow downward. While the failure of retaining wall at the Zoo View development was collapsed and move downward to Kampung Pasir area, which later caused on the damages of three numbers of long house.
Mokhtar, 27 5. Vulnerability to landslides, in Landslide Hazard and Risk eds T. Climate and development Knowledge Network Stormwater Managemet Manual for Malaysia. Percetakan Nasional Berhad: Kuala Lumpur. Guideline for Erosion and Sediment Control in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. Hossein Mahmoudi et al. Learning to live with Landslides: Natural Hazards and Disasters.
Sri Lanka. Notably, most of these studies were performed in the early s. No meaningful report has emerged the last 10 years. Unlike conventional cytology, MSA detected low-grade and low-stage disease as efficiently as it could high-grade and high-stage disease [ 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 98 ]. Amira et al. Similarly, a report by van Riijen [ 99 ] demonstrated that, out 93 bladder cancer patients, MSA identified 18 of the 24 recurrent tumors, while the six undetected tumors turned out to be minimal pTaG1 lesions, for which early surgical treatment was not necessary.
By contrast, 5 out of 9 patients with a positive MSA with a negative cystoscopy, as in the report by Amira et al. As discussed above, Frigerio et al. Notably, van Rhijn et al. Nevertheless, so far, there is not enough clinical evidence to warrant the substitution of the cystoscopic follow-up scheme by any of the currently available urine marker tests.
Likewise, currently, the data are not consistent with the sole use of molecular tests in patients with a high risk of developing bladder cancer. However, many studies have shown molecular tests to offer value in not only improving the diagnostic accuracy of high-risk groups in the initial diagnosis of bladder cancer, but also in the prediction of recurrence [ 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 98 , 99 , , , ], albeit only when used in conjunction with cytology and cystoscopy; molecular testing can reduce the need for these procedures.
Sensitivity and specificity of the data for various urinary biomarkers for surveillance of recurrent bladder cancer. Adapted from van Rhijn et al. The median sensitivity per grade G1—3 and specificity of the urinary biomarkers for surveillance of recurrent bladder cancer.
Similarly, the report by van Riijen demonstrated that out of 93 bladder cancer patients in a surveillance setting, 5 of 9 patients with a positive MSA with a negative cystoscopy had a tumor recurrence within 6 months after urine collection [ 93 , 94 ].
Importantly, van der et al. Overall, the author suggested that MSA status can be used as a potentially powerful tool in predicting recurrent disease. This finding is consistent with the observation that FGFR3 gene mutations are known to be associated with genomic stability in bladder cancer [ 97 , 98 , 99 , , , , ]. Notably, several studies have identified that MSA more frequently fails to detect recurrent disease among nonsmoking patients.
Moreover, surveillance by MSA seems to be more efficient in the assessment of smoking patients with an FGFR3 wild-type tumor, which is genetically more unstable [ 96 , 97 ]. Notably, the microsatellite markers employed in the MSA assay must be tailored to the population under scrutiny, as demonstrated by the initially low informativeness of the assay on Chinese patients studied using marker panels that were developed for occidental patient cohorts [ , , , , , , , ].
In their report, Song et al. The resulting single topology suggested significant geographic and population partitioning, which was in line with the differences in geographic location, languages, and eating habits. These findings also suggest that forensic STR loci can potentially become powerful tools as they can provide the necessary fine resolution for reconstructing recent human evolutionary history.
Another study tested the genetic polymorphism of 29 STR loci in the Hunan, Han population in China, and further investigated the application of short tandem repeat STR loci routinely used in forensic analysis in Chinese populations [ ]. We recently proposed a multiplex PCR format and proposed that 15 markers manuscript submitted would achieve at least five informative markers in the Chinese population in Short tandem repeat STR regions, also known as microsatellite regions, within chromosomes are unstable in cancerous cells and are deleted, causing a loss of heterozygosity LOH in tumor samples.
STRs are short sequences of DNA, normally 2—5 base pairs in length, that are repeated numerous times in a head—tail manner, i. The number of repeats in STRs varies not only from person to person but from one allele to another within the same person. Therefore, a person may possess six sets of a tetramer repeat on one allele and ten on the other allele; this person is said to be heterozygous at this STR region. Furthermore, these STR regions become unstable during cancer progression and may be lost due to deletion.
When this loss occurs, only one PCR product is amplified in the tumor. Comparison of the normal DNA isolated from peripheral blood and the tumor specimen shows a loss of heterozygosity LOH in the tumor specimen Figure 2. In this manner, a comparison of the normal DNA with the tumor DNA can detect the genetic changes indicative of cancerous lesions.
There are three separate steps involved. Second, in fluorescence-based fragment detection of the amplicons, the PCR amplicons are resolved on a capillary-based gel electrophoresis system that detects, sizes, and determines the relative fluorescence units RFU for each fragment. Third, in the determination of microsatellite instability status of each sample, the RFUs of heterozygous alleles detected in the blood are compared to the RFUs detected in the matched urine sample, and the ratio of RFUs from urine alleles to blood alleles is calculated.
Markers that exhibit values outside the ratios seen in normal samples are said to exhibit a loss of heterozygosity LOH. This LOH serves as an indicator of bladder cancer. A new approach that combines a PCR with fluorescent primers and capillary electrophoresis, which is performed by automatic DNA sequencer allowing fragment analysis at single base resolution has been pursued. This approach has also been modified by the multiplexing of PCR to allow the amplification of 2—5 microsatellite markers and the automatic identification of the allele size [ , , , , , , , , ].
Clearly, this approach has been applied into MSA for bladder cancer detection. Barlott et al. In this study, Barlott et al. The study suggested that multiplex microsatellite analysis can be a noninvasive, rapid, inexpensive, and reproducible method for screening for and monitoring superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
Most current microsatellite analyses are designed to compare the ratios of amplification products of the paternal and the maternal allele from the urine samples of patients against the ratios from their blood leukocytes as normal control, judging values below a range of 0. These thresholds were arbitrarily set and consequently did not take into account technical influences, such as differences in DNA quality and quantity between control and test samples or locus-specific amplification reproducibility, and could result in inconsistent findings in different groups.
The thresholds also caused decreased sensitivity and sensitivity. Therefore, not only a good selection of informative markers but also the right ratio is crucial in developing a dependable MSA for bladder cancer detection. To address this problem more systematically, Frigorie et al. The threshold values from a retrospective study on biopsies from confirmed bladder carcinoma patients were tested in a blinded prospective survey for the sensitivity and specificity of MSA and these data were further compared with conventional cytological and UroVysion FISH analyses that were performed in parallel.
PCR was performed for each patient. The authors proposed the 10 most informative markers. The report also included a new threshold for each marker; ratios below 0. Its multifaceted clinical presentation and expected course of progression make bladder cancer a potentially valuable screening target; currently, the consensus is that high-risk populations should be screened [ 39 , 40 ].
Two key aspects underscore the importance of bladder cancer screening in the coming decades. First, the persistently high prevalence of smoking is expected to function as key hazard for significant carcinogenic effects on the bladder for the next several generations. Second, it is highly unlikely for bladder cancer to have the capacity to metastasize before it becomes invasive [ 47 ].
Therefore, there is a valuable opportunity to detect bladder cancer early, in a window of timing between tumor origination and invasion. Certainly, the management of noninvasive cancers involves fewer morbidities and is more effective for curative treatment than that of invasive bladder cancer [ 51 ] as, in this stage of tumor development, cystectomy, systemic chemotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy are not required.
MSA for the detection of cancer poses several significant technical challenges, specifically in the area of allele calling and interpretation. The results obtained mirror the results obtained by Butler et al. Laboratory-to-laboratory variability due to instrumentation and personnel created differences in assay performance. Additionally, both stochastic effects and variations in peak height effects between the DNA derived from urine sediment samples and the DNA derived from blood samples provided more variation in the results, which added to interpretation differences.
These differences were especially evident in samples that produced results slightly above or below the cut-off ratios established for LOH. Hence, STR assays present significant challenges, including establishing the parameters to be used for determining LOH from potential tumor cells isolated from urine sediment. LOH is commonly observed among many different types of solid tumors and allows the detection of recessive loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes [ 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 ].
The detection of recurrent LOH in a genomic region is critical evidence for the localization of tumor suppressor genes. Multiple factors play a role in interpretation because most clinical samples collected from urine contain a mixture of tumor and normal cells, producing a potential mixture at each loci being analyzed, which can obscure losses of genetic material in tumor cells.
Moreover, LOH can only be determined by comparative analysis of a control profile obtained from a blood sample. This study illustrates the challenge of qualifying a technically difficult biomarker assay that requires interpretation by an analyst.
Recently, we successfully reproduced a dependable 15 marker, 3 multiplex PCR assay. Additionally, we are preparing a manuscript for a concordance study between three laboratories and two different genetic analyzers.
Moreover, we are also preparing a report on a unique approach to MSA involving the use of genomic DNA from a buccal swab instead of blood samples. This new approach will be likely to be patient-friendly as this will clearly avoid unnecessary blood sampling. Unlike conventional cytology, it appears that microsatellite analysis, MSA, can detect low-grade and low-stage disease as accurately as high-grade and high-stage disease [ 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 ].
Several factors are involved in maximizing the sensitivity and specificity of MSA. Second, a careful set-up of dependable methods is necessary to avoid erroneous LOH- judgements due to PCR artefacts, repeatedly described by others. Third, performing MSA on a genetic analyzer, which is a commonly used tool, needs to be standard in MSA practice, since it offers two major advantages.
First, sample processing can be largely automatized, and results are provided in the form of a numerical data readout, independently of inter-observer variability associated with the complex interpretation of morphological features. Third, the amount of genomic DNA to be analyzed needs to be sufficient; we suggest the use of least 20 to 30 ng of urine genomic DNA, 20 ng for 10 markers, and 30 ng for 15 markers.
Fourth, we propose that at least 15 mL of urine should result in more than of samples with enough urine DNA. In summary, while the field of MSA-based bladder cancer detection has been quite inactive in the last 8 to 9 years, it is still a viable option as a powerful biomarker for bladder cancer detection. However, as mentioned above, four key technical considerations need to be carefully addressed in order for this to be the case. We also provided a comparative analysis between MSA and other assays, as well while as discussing the details of four different FDA-approved assays.
We suggest that MSA can be a potentially powerful test for bladder cancer detection and may improve the quality of life of bladder cancer patients. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Int J Mol Sci. Published online Nov Find articles by David Moon.
Wilhelm K. Aicher, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 3; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Microsatellite instability MSI , the spontaneous loss or gain of nucleotides from repetitive DNA tracts, is a diagnostic phenotype for gastrointestinal, endometrial, colorectal, and bladder cancers; yet a landscape of instability events across a wider variety of cancer types is beginning to be discovered.
Keywords: bladder cancer, microsatellite, molecular diagnostics. Introduction Microsatellite instability MSI is a molecular tumor phenotype resulting from genomic hypermutability and is initially described as variations in the length of microsatellite sequences in the entire genomic structure. An Overview of MSI 2. Initial Discoveries and Clinical Applications Four pathways have been identified as causes of genomic instability for various cancer types, including gastrointestinal cancer [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ].
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Loss of Heterozygosity LOH in Bladder Cancer Patients Bladder cancer develops through several premalignant stages; the search for chromosomal markers that can serve as early neoplasia detection markers or predict recurrence has identified several genomic regions that contribute to neoplastic progression.
Microsatellite Analysis: Initial Studies As discussed above, studies on the applicability of MSI analysis to the diagnosis of bladder tumors were first described by Mao et al. A Study No. Cancer Res. Table 2 Sensitivity and specificity of the data for various urinary biomarkers for surveillance of recurrent bladder cancer. Table 3 The median sensitivity per grade G1—3 and specificity of the urinary biomarkers for surveillance of recurrent bladder cancer.
Marker Reference Number No. MSA Assay for Different Ethnic Group Notably, the microsatellite markers employed in the MSA assay must be tailored to the population under scrutiny, as demonstrated by the initially low informativeness of the assay on Chinese patients studied using marker panels that were developed for occidental patient cohorts [ , , , , , , , ].
Discussion Its multifaceted clinical presentation and expected course of progression make bladder cancer a potentially valuable screening target; currently, the consensus is that high-risk populations should be screened [ 39 , 40 ]. Acknowledgments C. Author Contributions C. Institutional Review Board Statement Not applicable.
Informed Consent Statement Not applicable. Conflicts of Interest C. References 1. Aaltonen L. Clues to the pathogenesis of familial colorectal cancer. Ionov Y. Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis. Thibodeau S.
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