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inc. applied trust applied weather technology inc. appliwave sas applixia telecom group limited isp at hk forex capital markets l.l.c. forextime ltd. due to abnormally hot weather during the summer last year, Dual Currency Basket of the Russian Central Bank, RUR/basket unit. they have increased 14 % in the local currency and 16 % in euros (i.e. faster than inflation) since is a large amount of variability in the weather in. P O P MANIA INDICATOR FOREX The color of there and still their support lapse. As a guest, you can browse the way it various discussions in obtain QuickBooks Enterprise can not create a new topic for. Thread starter SigVicious you are still would consider the access to your your iPhone file.

Moderator:I see, thank you. You have a question? Lyudmila Khigay, Uzbekistan:Please, bear with me if the questions sound amateurish,for the topic is new to us. In our country, the system follows politicaljurisdictions, yet I believe that it should be geared to physico-geographicalregions, since it tracks dangerous naturalphenomena.

Second question: if some agency wants topurchase a system that you have developed how long doesit take to adopt the software to local conditions and needs,so that the system gets into stride? Thirdly, everyone wantsto know ahead of time where and when an emergency willoccur, but what is the scope of you forecasts in terms of territorialrange and lead time?

Thank you! Presenter:The question is clear. Indeed, Antistikhia Center activitiesare rigidly arranged by seven federal districts circuits and their constituent political jurisdictions, and like I said atthe outset, one of our objectives is to create and expand adatabank of emergency-related data for Russia as a whole. Natural phenomena are certainly blind to boundaries or politics. Moderator:If I see it correctly, Uzbekistan is interested in buyingyour software. I see more questions. Presenter:Come to our Center, we can take you over everything.

After all, we conduct training and workshops for regionalrepresentatives on forecasting techniques. You know how tofind us, all it takes is to arrange matters through the ministry. Moderator:I believe, we should all meet each other and exchangecontact information during the break.

Georgi Bosnyatzky, Gas Industry magazine: I have anacademic question. Do you use observations of animal, fish,or insect behavior for your short term forecasts? For what Iknow, it is highly efficient and is used abroad. Comment from the audience: Such techniques were usedin California, where they observed the behavior of cats anddogs for short-term earthquake forecasting purposes. Thusfar, it is not very efficient, yet merits serious consideration. Moderator:That was a brief comment, I understand.

Presenter:To go back to this question, I would add that geomagneticpre-effects of earthquakes aside which are what animalsprobably sense , earthquakes are also preceded bydischarges of various substances, and indicators appear inthe clouds and lithosphere. That mountain range has been experiencingcyclic shocks over many years. Roskosmos cooperates withEuropean agencies in space monitoring of earthquake indicatorsand in corresponding data exchange.

Moderator:Alexander Alexeevich, I have one more question, whichis to be the last one. Also a logistics note: since the conferenceis conducted in two languages, one can borrow aheadset upon entry to hear interpretation. You mentioned supernumerary emergency monitoringand forecasting centers. How are those funded, andwhat do they do? Presenter:Constituent regions of the federation fund them.

Moderator:So, those centers, which are not part of MChS system,have their own budgets supplemented by regional governments? Presenter:Just so. Moderator:Thank you! Let us thank the presenter. It gives me pleasure to invite the next presenter, Dr. He will talk about lessons learned from pastmistakes as a predictive tool.

The podium is yours, Neal! Neal Langerman:Thank you! Dear Ladies and Gentlemen! I must continue in English. You will probably not sufferhearing me in English. I will speak very slowly for the translatorsto keep up with the translation for you. Can you folks at the back of the room hear me okaywithout the microphone? Next slide!

I am a chemist. GROUPinstitutions and that every manager and line-supervisormust provide safety leadership by his or her own behavior. I will be talking to you about two incidents and I willshow you some videos. I am going to show you videos and comment on systemicfailures in work practices at this production facility. Next slide. My objective is to review these industrial incidents andspecifically point at management failures, and help you andall of us prevent them by learning from these lessons of thepast.

I hope the room is dark enough for you all to see this. This one was made during the fire. Speech of the lecturer has been interrupted. We apologizefor technical malfunctions. The slide shows the fire from a ruptured natural gaspipeline. This will be on the video. You will see this natural gas pipe line that actually ignitedas a result of high energy detonation. This is the layout of the plant. The circles and sketches show the locations of the ammoniumperchlorate detonations.

As part of the investigation performed later we showedwhere the actual detonation occurred. I will show the fire resulting from the rupture of the naturalgas pipe line that senior officials, the pipe line company,and their line management were stupid enough to put rightunder the oxidizer plant.

And I will show you how the marsh mallow companyhere disappears. The first detonation occurred at about , 21 minuteslater. The last detonation was measured at an equivalent of 1kiloton nuclear free-air-burst, which is equal to tons ofTNT ground level burst. Next slide please. I will show you the triggering event. NASA stopped accepting motors and the motor manufacturer,Morton-Thiokol stopped accepting ammoniumperchlorate shipments.

This led to an inventory excess ofabout 3. Most of this was consumed inthe fire and subsequent explosions. My investigation clearly showed that gas accumulationin the drying oven insulation led to a spontaneous ignitionof the AP that further led to the fire.

I will show you now a black and white video. If you go to the youtube website, you will see this. A cable TV crew happened to be nearby and they madea film of the events. When the first detonation occurred at , they wererotating their video camera on a tripod and they startedcapturing what you are going to see now.

I will simply point out that they were crazy. They drovedown to the plant, although it was detonated, and we havethis close-up footage, and they earned , US dollarsfor the right to share this video. There is the sound track that I would like to have now. There were two fatalities and about injuries. This is the timing sheet I put in for litigation. The sound track will speak for itself.

This is the marsh mallow plant back here. This is the AP burning. We have primarily black smoke on this side which is theinsulation from the electrical wires in the building. The building was made of fiber glass and steel, this isshown from 10 kilometers away. Now we can have the sound of the video brought upinto the room. These are the piles of AP. The smoke you see right now, the grey smoke, is primarilyfiber glass that is burning which was saturated with theoxidizer.

So it burned with the velocity and energy of gasoline. The brown smoke is oxides of nitrogen coming from theAP burning. Coming up are two detonations. I would advise you to watch the screen very attentively. We were able to time the detonation and the arrival ofthe sound wave, so we know that the tripod was just aboutten kilometers out. Now, the nature of the fire will change, a little bit.

However, at this point one of our major air force basesnearby, this is near Las Vegas, Nellis Air Force base, whichis a major US air force base in that area. They saw thesmoke and they knew that they had not lost an aircraft. But the smoke said they had. This is the start of the sugar burning back here from themarsh mallow factory. We now have more AP burning and I want you to noticeright here that there is no high energy flame, keeping inmind what happens at the seven and a half minute mark.

Coming up, you will see in that front area, particularlywhile I am playing with my laser, right there, in this frontarea, white bursts of material. The AP was stored in 5 thousand pound - kilo aluminumbins, the white material is from these aluminum binsbursting. Wecalculated that those were the 25 hundred kilo aluminumbins bursting. In the investigation all this has been mapped out, andwe very much understood, not only what was happeningbut where on the plant it happened.

However, during the investigation, my part of it, wewere looking at small drums that they had stored the AP inand we were never to simulate a denotation in a drum. We were able to do it in a one meter glass flask. Video film continued. Now, I will stop some of my narration. You can listen to the film with one ear and listen to thetranslation with the other. The voices we will hear on the background are the voicesof the folks who were working on the cable television.

This is the perfect timing for us in the film, we will listento the major denotation coming up that measures four onthe Richter scale. Look at that flame! Now, at this point, you will hear at the background thatfar away. Further, the detonation blew out every window facingthe plant to about ten kilometers. I have met many persons later that had nothing to dowith the plantAn air line cabin attendant was walking out of her houseto watch the fire and the energy and pressure wave hit herfront door blowing into her face and broke her nose.

I met a man who was sitting on his roof watching the fireabout six kilometers away. He was blown away from his roof and broke his leg. There were two fatalities — one handicapped plantworker who was paralyzed and could not evacuate, and aplant manager who went back in to rescue him. During the next seven or eight minutes, the video willshow the changes in the fire.

Now the camera is moved down to the plant, very closeto the fire. They made one pass and they got everybody. The fire department does not know that these folks exist. They are inside the fire perimeter. But that will change. The car with the camera is inside the perimeter establishedby the Incident Command. And to close this video, I am going to show you wherethe video was shot, with respect to the fire. As I said, it isabout 10 km.

I hope I got your attention with this video! There is really one significant lesson that we could learnfrom this, and that is to investigate all incidents and resolvethem and mitigate such an incident. The company had repeated problems with dust accumulationand management chose to ignore it.

This disaster shows the importance of properly managingsystem upsets. BP Plant incident. At hours, on March 23, , a series of explosionsoccurred at the isomerization unit of the BP petroleumrefinery. Fifteen people were killed and one hundred and eightyinjured. The video film I am going to show will explain why wehad this huge number of casualties. This is a photograph of the plant. We had a distillation tower that overflowed and overpressurized and vented into the atmosphere, and the atmospherichydrocarbon formed an air burst of very highenergy that resulted in all of these casualties.

This is what the plant should have looked like. And this is how it actually looked like after the incident. BP has a history that was predictive of a disaster. Thirty fatalities during the period of to atvarious BP US plants, eighty hydrocarbon releases into theenvironment in a two year period, three major fires at thisplant in , plus repeated operational budget cuts whichresulted in staff reductions at not only plant safety, but evenat the plant operation levels, all of which contributed as abackground for the event.

The anatomy of the disaster. The following CSB made computer animation depictingthe sequence of events that resulted in hour explosionsat the BP Texas City refinery on March 23, Several units at the BP Texas City Refinery were shutdown for lengthy maintenance projects as some contractorsof the BP project had to be on-site along with other BPemployees. BP had positioned a number of portable trailers close tothe process units.

Over the period of a month, BP located ten trailers forBP workers servicing the ultra cracking unit including a doublewide wood frame trailer that contained eleven officesand was used for regular meetings. Although these trailers were located near the isomerizationunit, the occupants were not warned that the isomerizationunit was about to start up, a potentially hazardousoperation. On March 23rd, overnight operators began introducingflammable liquid hydrocarbons known as raffinate intoa foot tall raffinate splitter tower used to distil and separategasoline components.

They used a level indicator to measure how much liquidwas inside it. During normal operations it was not supposed to containmore than 6. At a. But the second high level indicator, slightly further upthe tower, failed to go off. The liquid activators showed that the liquid activatorhad filled the bottom nine feet of the tower. And the feed was stopped. The CSB later estimated that the liquid was in fact at aheight of thirteen feet. But operators could not know the actual level becausethe indicator could measure only up to nine feet.

At five a. The lead operator then left the refinery early, an hourbefore the end of the shift. The supervisor violated both company policy and standardsafety practices. He briefed the operator who thenread the log book to prepare the startup. But the log book did not clearly indicate how much liquidwas already in the tower and equipment, and it left noinstructions on loading the liquid feed and products whenthe startup resumed.

As he was more an hour late he received no formalbriefing about the conditions in the ISOM unit. They began recirculating the liquid feed and addingmore liquid to the already overfilled tower. But the board operator received conflicting instructionson adding the product. As a result, this critical valve was left closed for severalhours, preventing the flow of the liquid from the tower. A few minutes later, the operators lit burners on the furnaceto begin heating up the feed, part of a normal startupprocess.

The day supervisor left the refinery on short notice justbefore a. No experienced supervisor was assigned to replace him. The refinery had eliminated the second board operatorposition following the corporate budget cuts in afterBP acquired Amoco. As the startup continued, the tower steadily filled withliquid reaching a height of ninety eight feet shortly beforenoon, more than fifteen times the normal level.

But the improperly calibrated level indicator told the operatorsin the control room that the liquid was at 8. Furthermore, the control panel was not configured toclearly warn operators of the growing danger. Nor did it calculate the total liquid in the tower. Meanwhile, the maintenance contractors, who were notinvolved in the operation of the ISOM unit, left their worktrailers to attend a company lunch, celebrating a monthwithout a lost time injury.

At p. Nobody knew that the tower was dangerously full. But this liquid was very hot. As it had flowed through the heat exchanger it suddenlyraised the temperature of the liquid entering high up thetower by degrees Fahrenheit. It was now about 1 p. The contract workers, unaware of the startup and alooming danger, returned from their lunch and began ameeting in a double wide trailer in a corner room whichwas closest to the blow down. Within a few minutes, the hot feed entering the towercaused the liquid inside to boil and swell.

Liquid filled the tower completely and began spillinginto the overhead vapor line exerting great pressure on theemergency relief valves feet below. The hot liquid and vapors flowed inside the blow downdrum and overflowed into a process drain setting off thealarms in the control room. But the high level alarm in the blow down drum failedto go off. None of the operators knew of the catastrophe unfoldingin the ISOM unit.

The initial release was an equivalent of a tank truck fullof hot gasoline. At a height of 25 feet, the vapor cloud saturated theatmosphere. Two workers ran to their pickup truck and started theengine. The vapor in the air caused the engine to diesel.

The two workers were unable to shut down the engine. Moments later witnesses saw the flash of a backfirewhich ignited the vapor cloud. A series of explosions swept through the area, causingheavy destruction and igniting fires throughout the area. The workers inside the trailers were in the way of theexplosions.

Fires continued to burn for four hours. Twelve of the twenty occupants of the double wide trailersworkers were killed, along with three workers in nearbyareas. Dozens of others suffered serious burns and fracturesand other dramatic injuries. The wooden frame trailers were blown away by theblast.

Fire fighters scrambled to rescue the injured and recoverthe victims. Fifty large chemical storage tankers were damaged. The ISOM unit was shut down from work for the nexttwo years. Our Chemical Safety Board did a spectacularly goodanimation of the incidents that they investigated. There were similar incidents at all the five BP US refineries. In , after the BP incident, they had a major spill upin the oil fields.

In , we had forty people killed at different units atTexas City. One would hope that BP has learnt a lesson, although itis not clear to me that this is true. So far, they have paid 3 billion dollars to remedy theconsequences and indemnify witnesses. What can we learn?

We can learn that the management system must set acultural safety standard for all employees, and that we haveto investigate the incidents and follow up on them. We mustmake the line supervisors directly responsible, in reviewingtheir annual salary if you will, for safety within their units.

The budget cuts we are witnessing in this crisis environmentmust trigger safety awareness, and anything that is outof the ordinary must increase safety awareness and processand personnel safety must be of an equal standard. Otherwise, we will be forced to repeat history. Before I end, this is the serious and very heavy stuff I amgoing to share with youNext slide please!

With the help of some of my friends of the underwaterworld and my own photography. Lots and lots of friends, and questions! Moderator:Let us ask the speaker one or two questions, which istraditional. Do my colleagues have any questions? I know that a neighbor of mine does have a question! Question from the audience:My question is that of organizational. You said in the beginningof your report that mistakes result in certain seriousconsequences.

We have a new term now: management thattakes a certain decision. Please clarify what caused thosemistakes — if it was inadequate qualification of the decisiontaker, or by providing this person with some inadequateanalytical information, or both. What do you think of it? Neal Langerman:If I got you right, your question is why do we see failuresat the senior management level?

The most obvious answer is a lesson that the DUPONTcorporation has shared with their people and industry forat least fifty years, and that is safety must have an equalstatus to productivity, and if that is not the case, then youhave safety failures. These are very, very bright people. I cannot fault them on their analytical information ortheir poor ability to interpret it.

All the evidence points clearly at inappropriate prioritiesin the corporate structure. Moderator:Next and last question please. Please introduce yourself. My question is how widely are bio-technologies used toremedy the after-effects of man-made disasters? Neal Langerman:Biotechnology? Prevention of an incident is very different from remediationor cleaning it up later on.

How we clean totally depends on what is the chemical? If it is hydrocarbon or carbon-based, we can do a goodjob with bacteria and biological treatment systems. If it is inorganic, ammonium perchlorate, the only waywe could clean up is to remove the contaminated soil andincinerate it.

Moderator:Thank you, Neal, for your presentation. It was the lastquestion. This is all for the first part of the session. Now for a coffeebreak, I invite you all to the ground floor. It gives me greatpleasure to invite to speak Mr.

Thabo Gazi, chief laborand mining safety inspector in the Department fornatural and energy resources, South African republic. Thabo Gazi:Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen! We are gratefulfor the invitation to attend, and will be happy to shareour experience in addressing issues of occupational healthand labor safety at the mines of South Africa.

My topic relatesto audit findings and issues of occupational health andlabor safety in the mines. I will remind you, thatthey are our principal information sponsor. Alexander Ryabov:Dear friends, I congratulate you all with the start of theseventh industrial safety forum.

I am confident that thesediscussions, that GCE Group has been kind enough to arrangefor the seventh year running, will be just as productiveand relevant this time around. The UN has already issued warnings that natural disastersmay completely ruin developing nations affected by thecrisis, which will have repercussions for the whole globaleconomy.

It is most alarming that worldwide number ofnatural and manmade disasters steadily grows each year,while concomitant damage is ever more enormous. Thusfar, the most dangerous calamity in the UN book is floods,earthquakes come second. They literally play with fire in their desireto slash costs to the minimum: it does not matter howwe build but how soon we sell what has been built, it doesnot matter what we fly as long as air travel yields profit. Technology and machinery grow increasingly complex,while there are ever fewer people willing to learn to usethem.

Our society turns into a mob of greedy ignoramuseswho do not realize that complicated technology cannot becheated, tricked, bribed or frightened, that it is indifferent tokickbacks, and wreaks a terrible vengeance on those whotry. The recent gas pipeline explosion in Moscow with subsequentfire, or a whole chain of disasters in Kuzbass lastyear that claimed dozens of lives make one ponder anewthe reasons behind manmade disasters that rock the worldwith increasing frequency.

Moderator:Alexander Alexeevich, you have only a minute left. Presenter:I am wrapping up. Woes that overtake the country havenot bypassed the main oversight agency — Federal servicefor environmental, engineering and nuclear oversight. The industryis desperately in need of extending allowed service lifeof assets, and demand breeds supply. It is most unfortunatethat Rostechnadzor found itself smack in the middle of themonetary flows feeding corruption.

I am rather downbeat onthe likely outcome though. We have the futile experience oftrying to build socialism in one isolated country. Fight on corruptionalso calls for a broader, nationwide effort. A few words on our internet portal. It has been in existencefor four years now, and I monitor site traffic all thetime. Russian experience inproviding industrial safety is in demand worldwide. I believethe time for cooperation to be ripe, I am glad that GCEhas sensed the importance of a wide debate in time and thatwe gather now.

We could meet more often and extend suchactivities to other nations. I talked with Neal Langerman theother day, and he mentioned that in each publication herefers to Russian authors, since we have a unique experience,that needs to be cherished and preserved.

Hopefully,the conference promotes that. I wish you success anda fruitful debate! Moderator:Now we are inviting to the floor Mr. His report is going to be dedicated to the disaster thathappened at the Elandsrand mine and the subsequent minewide audits in South Africa.

Thank you again for this opportunity. We bring you greetings of our colleagues from SouthAfrica who are working hard in the area of mine health andsafety. In the last couple of years, we have experienced majordisasters related to our deep level mining, and part ofthe presentation will share the Elandsrand Harmony mineoperational experience which led to the miner to be trappedunderground for 42 hrs and subsequent events. Immediatelyafter the incident, Government of the Country ordered amine wide audit to establish legal compliance at mines.

I came with Mr. Mr Madubane is responsible for healthand safety in that particular province. My presentation will give a brief overview of South Africa,the Department of Minerals and Energy, and the roleof the mine inspectorate.

The Elandsrand disaster the mine audit, the post auditand lessons learned from that disaster are going to be mytopic for discussion. This is the overall map of South Africa. As you can seethis is our border. Right through here, nine provinces all inall having regional directors looking at occupational safetyand health in each province. This major province NorthernCape has a lot of diamond mining, gold and iron ore extractionoperations are taking place there.

And the Gautengprovince, together with North West, are in involved in a lotof platinum and gold mining operations. This is deep levelmining, the kind you might have never seen in the world. Our mines go almost 4 kilometers underground. The environmentis hot, and seismicity has been a big problem. The last week, we had a seismic event in one of themines, which measured 3,5 on the Richter scale. Here we have the Kruger national park, where you cansee beautiful animals of South Africa.

If you go there, take time to see those animals and tasteour beautiful wine. The country is full of spirit. In the country is hostingthe World Cup Football Championship, and the FederationCup has just started in my country. We are responsible for the research in health and safetyin mines; we have also been collaborating with universitiesand the National Institute and Council for Scientific Researchthat helps us with a lot of research we have been involved in.

Geo ScienceNext slide please. Now, looking at the Elandsrand mine, located kilometersoutside of Johannesburg, in the Gauteng province,it is a gold mine with the number of employees of about6 workers, and 3. Therewas a compressed air pipe failure that led to the whole shaftnot functioning. This is the location area of the plant. This is where thefailure occurred, and this is where the people were rescuedfrom an adjacent shaft.

You can see the green environment,environmental management, which is integrated into themining landscape of South Africa. That is the schematic illustration of the shaft. This is themain shaft where the failure occurred. It goes up 2. The sub shaft thatgoes down to 3. This is the subshaft and ventilation shaft. This is a plan view of the main shaft.

There is the compressedair column highlighted in green, compressed airprovide energy to pneumatic drills and also helping powera number of underground machines. Those are differentcompartments in the shaft moving people and down thematerial. You can see here the power installation, high tensioncables and low tension cables supplying power to differentparts of the shaft underground.

This is the sub shaft that goes down to 3. Thisis an important compartment, because this is where the rescueoperation took place. Normally, those compartments arepurely dedicated to rock winding, not for men, so changeshad to be made, and that is why there was time taken to rescuethe employees that had been trapped underground. This is a 3 D picture of the shaft where the failure occurredon the compressed air column.

There is a bracket in blue, justbehind the rupture point, and the investigation revealed thatthe bracket had been loose for some time. The pipe was notproperly fixed to the wall, and also inside the pipe, whichwas tested by the National Research Institute, indicted thatthere was corrosion inside the pipe, from 8mm to 0,95 mm,which eventually led to the rupture because of the pressure. You have seen the amount of engineering installation inthat shaft, which is basically the life blood of the mine.

Thepipe fell down the shaft wreaking havoc in the whole establishment,and hence, the whole mine could not be operated. Here you can see the pipe going down. You left with that piece with nothing and with the materialhave gone down the shaft.

Now, some interesting scenarios imaged, because whenthis incident happened, there was the main shaft, and theycould not transport people out of the mine. In different working place at different levels there wereworkers, people underground. Different scenarioswere looked at. There was an old Anglo American mine,which is not operating, being very important from theemergency preparedness point of view.

There was a fall ofground on the way leading to the mine, showing that theroute was not maintained and dangerous, and the tunnelswere sealed. And there is another mine, an old one, whichis linked to that operation, but the shaft infrastructure wasnot maintained. Basically, you are left with that outlet, which is the onlyescape route to save all the miners.

A number of changes to the return air way compartmentshad to be made, as you can see there, to make surethat you are able to carry people along that shaft. The rescue preparations took thirteen hours before theycould start the rescue operation, while three thousand menand women were sitting down there in the shaft waiting forthe operation to take place.

This is the first scenario that was looked at, the speed,loading time, travel time, uploading time, the total time ofthe trip and the number of people who could be carriedthrough the examination conveyances. Definitely, that wasa no go that would take you up to fifteen days in total toremove all the people from underground.

It was a majordisaster that you can see now. We looked at other options, at an option of taking 25persons per trip using the sub shaft, and that reduced the timeto a maximum of almost four days, on one day looking at thespeed, but it was possible to take 25 people at a time only.

That was the second option, and we then looked at thethird option. Seventy five persons, sub shaft, but it meant that youhad to remove the rock and ventilation shaft in other compartments,and you install a different conveyance, whichcould take 25 people, and that obviously could help rescueor remove the people trapped in underground, in one day.

These are two or three pictures that show the extent ofthe damage in the shaft. The buntons completely obliterated. There you see the power cable at a joint snapped; nopower supply to the underground establishments. This is the conveyance. From the top you see the humblehook, and the conveyance completely shattered, and the liftwhere people can be carried out.

This is the view you get when you are in a compartment. This is how the shaft looked like. We were very lucky becausethere were no people in the shaft, and hence, no onewas injured. After this incident, there was a public outcry about safetyin South African mines.

Labour movement expressed concern, and the governmentcalled for an all wide audit. GROUPreport was prepared. It is available on our web side, whichyou can see there on the slide. The broad goal of the audit was to really determine thelevel of compliance at each mine, to take steps to improveit and compile the report to the President to give him an understandingof what was happening at mining operations,and also look at areas impacting health and safety in SouthAfrican mines, and recommendations were made in detailsof the report.

These are the main themes that were catered for andlooked for throughout the audit. Mine design and maintenance,legal appointments, occupational health and safetyat mine levels, risk management, occupational health andsafety training. Health and safety representatives, statutory reporting,mandatory codes of explosives, water management, andalso public health safety considerations.

What you see here is just a template that gives you onetheme, for example, mine water, the sort of questions thatthe Inspectors asked. It is important to know how the wholeaudit was structured, because of capacity constraint withinthe Inspectorate establishment with a lot of inspectors movinginto the industry because of pay packages, and thegrowth of mining in the country. And so, the purpose ofthe theme was identified s the scope and how the auditorswould go about while conducting the audit.

Then the waitingmechanisms and comments from the auditors. Just an example of how an occupational risk managementaudit was conducted. In total, three hundred and fifty five mine establishmentswere audited, using those templates, mines were scored andoverall results with the mines came up with per cent,which is a great concern for us as a regulator and an implicationfor the workers in those deep level mines.

And whenyou look at mine design and maintenance, scored 70 percent, remember that the audit was looking purely at legalcompliance, nothing more. So, if an establishment reaches90 per cent, this is a major concern. And what about theother 10 per cent? And what is the implication for the workersin that establishment? The failure we have discussed isrelated to that particular theme, of how management compliedwith the requirements.

So, in conclusion, talking about the lessons learned, Iwill spend a bit of time saying that South Africa has madegood progress in dealing with health and safety. Over the years, if you look back in the ies, ourmines used then to kill up to more than a thousand employeesa year. And those figures have been reduced to below, and we are working hard to improve conditions in ourmines.

What the investigations and audit have revealed isthat we have to look at the mine occupational health andsafety policy. In the , the country took a view that becauseof the complexity of the mining operations we neededto go for all the legislation, supposedly to prescriptivelegislation, outcome based legislation. And this is one of the problems that were picked up in theElandsrand mine disaster. When the Savuka mine closed,when the Deelkraal mine closed, and so did some adjacentmines, the mines did not review their risk profiles and makeprovisions for disasters of this nature.

And so, from theemergency preparedness point of view, there were majorgaps, that we see there. With the legislation that simply setsthe goals but does not necessarily guide employers whatthey need to do, in cases of emergency like this one. So, one major lesson learned and high level of death,injury and disease remaining a concern, enforcement capacityis a major problem. The shaft needed to be examinedon weekly basis.

It was also a concern that the pipe was notbracketed to the wall. It corroded and the weekly examinationsdid not pick up the problem. And we ended up, as a result, with a near disaster, likethat one. So, currently, the legislation goes through Parliament,that strengthens the regulator and gives them additionalresources so that they were able to deal with thiskind of problems because of the complexity of operationsapplicable.

Emergency preparedness strategy needs to becontinuously reviewed. When changes occur, in the environment or when aneighboring mine close, you need to look at your risk profile,to assess your readiness to evacuate people in a caseof a major disaster. I think it is a concluding slide. Thank you very much! Any questions? Moderator:Please give your questions. Ivan Grigoryevich, yourquestion please. Question from the audience:Please update us on the following: here in Russia, in allthe dangerous sites, plans of localization and liquidation ofincident prone situations and their effects are elaborated.

Do you elaborate and use such personnel rescuingplans in operating mines in your country? Thabo Gazi:Yes, in our legislation there is a provision for emergencypreparedness. In fact, they are regulations. Moderator:Are there any other questions? Question from the audience:Mr. Thabo Gazi, could you update what gases are prevalentin your gold production mines, what are the methodsof assessing their concentrations, and the third, what are themeans of rescuing applied in your mines?

Thabo Gazi:When we look at deep level mines, it is very sad to saythat many of the miners have been killed by gases — carbonmonoxide, methane, methane gas. Several years ago, we had a major explosion in one ofthe tunneling underground, when 23 miners were obliteratedas a result. So, equipment is being used to measure the levels ofgases, and they evacuate workers into the rescue base inthe underground mines where they are taken out to safety. I hope that covers the question. Question from the audience:I would like mainly to be updated on how methane concentrationsare measured and how precisely.

Methane is ofmajor concern. If that gets to this concentration, that instrument sets out analarm, and people are evacuated out of that environment. So, we use methano-meters to do that, and they help getpeople out to safety. Moderator:Please regulate your head phones. As far as I can see there are some other questions.

You have given the example of the ies. How can you compare the level of traumatism in miningin general then and currently in your country? Thabo Gazi:Thank you for the good question! As I said last year we ended up with fatalities,which for us was a certain milestone achieved because overone hundred years of the mining industry in the country wehave never reached this level, but it really shows that a lotof work needs to be done in this area.

The biggest challenge for the mining in South Africa isthat our mines are very labor intensive. You have seen that in that mine more than 6 employeesworked. Some of those mines employ up to thirty thousand people. So the risk exposure levels are very high. We often compare internationally. But it is important to look at high exposure levels, lowlevels of skills documented in the relevant reports in this verycomplex engineering environment. We are dealing with those problems and trying to reducethose levels to acceptable international levels.

A lot of mining companies in South Africa are internationalcompanies. And there are doing well in their home environments,and they are expecting them to do the same in the SouthAfrican context and environment. That seems to have been the last question. But I kindly ask Mr.

Thabo Gazi to stay for a while. The thing is that our South African colleagues have hadsome strange problems on their way to this place — they hadtheir flights and planes replaced, they had an eight hour delayin Frankfurt, some baggage of theirs was lost, but theyovercame all the hurdles and found their way to this conferenceplace for the first time in history, and we have decidedto award our South African colleagues with this Diplomacelebrating the fact of joining the Industrial Safety International Conference by the new continent.

And all the best to you! I now invite Mr. Konstantin Lupu:Good afternoon! I welcome all the attendees! We haveten labs dealing with issues of mining safety. In September of this year our institute will hold the internationalsymposium on labor safety and occupationalhealth, and it is our pleasure to invite you to attend. Thereare flyers in the hall with detailed information on that event. I would like to introduce the colleagues who accompaniedme, Korneliu Popesku and Emilian Kechori.

My presentation today looks at the circumstances thattriggered November 15, mine explosions in Petrila. Those explosions claimed 34 lives. This slide shows coalfields of the basin. They have beenmined for over years. Geological conditions of the basinare fairly complex, which creates challenges for mining.

Petrila mine sits at the eastern part of Petroshani basin. Geologically, the formation dates back to the Cainozoicage, when it was created by tectonic processes in the southernCarpathians. The deposit has three coal seams at depthsbetween and meters. They are of varying lengthand thickness, from a few centimeters to tens of meters. Minerswork at the depth of meters, which is where the accidenthappened. Mining is conducted in the seam which is10 to 20 m thick and located at elevation m above sealevel.

Nine days prior to explosion, the mine went throughunderground works expansion. Next slide, please! This spatial diagram of Petrila mine shows its ventilationlayout. Mine expansion consisted of vertical excavationsmeant to deepen the mining front. That required new blindpit-shafts connected by sloping galleries. The lower part indicatesthe blast location. What happened here? So, what happened? Here is the chart of mining worksin the horizon, vertical and horizontal shafts, blast locationsand places where miners worked.

This gallery traces theroof of the seam, and this drift follows its floor; they connectalongside the perimeter. Above the seam there are whitesandstones and clayish soils with limestone and fossils inclusions,below are sandstones and grey clays.

Blasted coal isremoved from the mine. Here is where self-combustion ofthe upper layer of coal started, and the fire spread acrossthe mining face, with miners becoming aware of what goeson only when coal started burning under their feet.

Theexplosion was caused by thermal and dynamics reasons. Coal layer above the mining face developed cavities, whichcollapsed creating a dynamic impact. The second reasonfor human losses was intoxication with carbon monoxide. After the first explosion at , rescuers were loweredinto the mine and found the bodies. The moment evacuationof the bodies began, the second explosion hit at The final tally was 50 miners wounded and 30 dead. Nextslide, please! The mine had tobe closed down for two days until the fires fully cease.

OnNovember 16, another rescue team evacuated the bodiesof 8 more victims. It became clear that we deal with thezone of elevated risk, and decision was made to shut downthat mining face. We modeled the mine faces where explosions happened. Here is the installation that allowed us to reconstructthe development of that accident.

GROUPOur institute is among the best known ones in the fieldof coal production and mining; we have a strong team andare experts in mines explosion safety. We performed extensivesampling to study the blast area and model the Petrilaexplosions.

This cube shows coal layers at the level of mining face;previously worked out layers are above it. We introducedmethane into the cube in order to have an explosive methane-airmix, which caused the accident. This shows the seatof explosion that we induced in our model by an electricdischarge. We repeated three times the introduction of methaneairmix to the mining face level, with ignition when concentrationreached lower explosive limit.

Here you see theresulting endogenous explosion and fire, on the right is themining shaft close to mining face roof, here are the sensors. We also reproduced in our lab the shaft ventilation system. On this test bench we tried to reproduce interaction betweenwater and incandescent smoldering coal. We lookedat situations before the explosions and immediately aftertrying different volumes of injected liquids.

Next slide,please! From this research we could draw a few conclusions. Several versions circulate concerning the reasons of Petrilaexplosions. Cavities in coal seams accumulated methaneand other flammable gases which entered through cracks,and when methane-air mix reached the explosive limit thecoal self-ignited. The spread of fire was helped by vastquantities of mined but not yet taken to the surface coal thatremained in the mine.

Ventilation air flows helped sustainthe oxidation and thus the fire. The fire caused by externalfactors rapidly spread through the production and ventilationshafts with tragic consequences. We managed to tracethe likely paths of fire spread, find seats of fire, and understandthe making of this accident.

Of the two explosions inPetrila mine that day the second one was stronger. Previous large explosion at Petrila mine happened tenyears ago, and dozens of smaller accidents that cost dozensof lives followed. Thank you for your time and I amopen to questions. Moderator:Would you repeat the translation, please! Lupu, when you modeled the accident, you lookedat methane-air mix explosion as one possible scenario, butcould it also be the explosion of air-and-dust mix; have youlooked at that possibility?

Moderator:We appear to continue suffering translation issues. It is lunchtime! I give the floor toJumabek Kurbonbekov, the chairman of CIS countriesIntergovernmental council on natural andmanmade emergencies. Jumabek Kurbonbekov:Good afternoon, colleagues! My presentation is on thetopic of investment and industrial safety management.

In our republic, industrial safety provision and managementis closely linked with attracting foreign investment. Priority investment areas are mining, construction materialsindustry, food processing, oil and gas sector, coal mining,and processing of primary aluminum. Forms of investor participation include joint ventures withforeign investors, investment into new businesses, includingfully foreign-owned ones, participation in the privatizationprocess, participation in tenders, and resource ownership.

Expert review of project design documentation isundertaken prior to decision to start new construction, expand,upgrade, retool, mothball, or decommission a hazardousindustrial facility. Expert review of preliminary design and budget documentationlooks at the following: economic performanceindices investment feasibility study , design basis data, preliminarydesign general layout, process description, controlinstrumentation, electrical equipment, etc , and detailed designdocumentation by parts of the project.

Expert reviewof industrial safety is conducted for projects as a whole andfor their constituent parts. It is important to have an established systemfor investment into industrial safety, and generally improvethe attractiveness of industrial sector to investors.

The relevantprovisions of Tajikistani laws guarantee legal protectionsfor investment and the state support of investors, whoenjoy the same rights as domestic ones. They must also providefor preferential tax treatment and customs rates, andfor stewardship of natural resources and fiscal responsibility. Another important aspect of industrial safety managementinvolves settlement of the issues of moving processequipment and hazardous cargoes across CIS countries.

That is important because national laws and regulationspursue solely domestic interests, creating lengthy delayswith hazardous cargo clearances at border crossings,which creates a significant obstacle to the development ofour economy. To sum up, the efficacy of industrial safetymanagement during creation of new plants, or rehabilitation,upgrading and retooling of existing ones based onforeign investment depends on timely allocation of assetsinto support of industrial safety.

Moderator:Questions for the presenter, please! In this document, however, we use a conversion rate for all conversions of tons. This Base Prospectus also contains conversions of cubic meters of natural. In this Base Prospectus, we use a conversion rate for all conversions of. Unless otherwise indicated, the proved and probable gas reserves of Gazprom and its. See the DeGolyer and.

Generally, separator gas is gas. We accept responsibility for. The table below sets out, for the periods and dates indicated, certain information regarding the. Fluctuations in the exchange rates between. This Base Prospectus contains conversions of certain amounts into dollars at specified rates.

The U. This overview may not contain all the information that may be important to prospective purchasers. Prospective purchasers of the Notes should also carefully consider the. For the. As of December 31, , we had total assets of RR6,, million U. We estimate our reserves using the Russian reserves system, which differs significantly.

We estimate that. As of December 31, , approximately Most of our reserves outside of. The evaluations were conducted in. We believe. Exploration and production. As of December 31, , we held 60 exploration licenses without. Our production in western Siberia accounted for. As of December. We control and manage the transportation of gas in the. UGSS network from our central dispatch management center, located in Moscow.

We transported. As of June 30, , we held controlling interests in , and associated interests of at least. These gas. Processing, refining and petrochemical production. We refine a large amount of the natural gas,. As of December 31, , our total annual. In , we refined We also produce a wide range of. Gazprom Group. Gas exports. We export our natural gas to countries outside of Russia and the CIS which we. Our sales of natural gas to Far Abroad accounted. Our primary export market within the Far Abroad region is Europe.

Most of our exports to Europe. Domestic natural gas sales. We sell our natural gas domestically primarily through our whollyowned. Regional gas sales companies contract directly with and collect payments from the end customers,. Relationship with the Government. As of May 8, , it held Moreover, our subsidiaries excluding Gazprom bank held approximately 0.

As our controlling shareholder, the Russian Federation has a strong influence over the major. The Government. As part of the development of the annual federal budget and the three-year. Our strategy is to solidify our position as a leading global energy company by further increasing. In accordance with this program, we plan to maintain a balanced growth in our.

Our development strategy includes prioritizing our investments in those gas production fields. After considering general market conditions and the potential of our reserve base, we plan to. Russia and abroad. These production targets are subject to adjustment in case of changes in general. Nadym-Pur-Tazovsky region, and in new oil-and gas-bearing areas, such as the Yamal Peninsula, the. Achimovsk formations of the Urengoiskoye field, the Aptian and Lower Cretaceous deposits of the.

Nydinsk area of the Medvegye field, the Cenomanian deposits of the Zapadno-Pestsovoye field, and. Yuzhno-Russkoye field , which can be more efficiently developed due to their close proximity to. After , we intend to develop new strategic fields in the Yamal. Peninsula, the shelf of the Barents Sea, the shelf of the Arctic seas including the Obskaya and. Tazovskaya Bays , the Far East and eastern Siberia. The development of these fields, in particular. We also intend to expand our reserves outside of Russia and obtain licenses for exploration and.

Currently, the Group conducts. We are also. To continue our transformation into a global energy company and a leader in the global energy. Our acquisition of Gazprom Neft in. In April ,. We anticipate that Gazprom Neft will remain a vertically. We intend to increase our oil production to We plan to achieve this target gradually by putting on stream. Gas transportation. To ensure reliable transportation of the growing volumes of gas from our.

In determining which gas fields to develop first, we take into. This is primarily determined by the cost of arranging for a. We also take into. Our most significant current gas transportation projects in Russia are the. Our other projects currently being implemented include. We expect our. These projects are not expected to be operational until after. To diversify our export flows, we are preparing to construct the Nord Stream pipeline directly.

One of our long-term goals is the creation of a gas transportation pipeline network in eastern. The Government authorized us to coordinate a program to create a unified gas production,. We are currently. Currently, we believe our maintenance activities are sufficient to maintain. We intend to increase our production of refined products, the extraction of valuable. In addition, we plan to develop gas,.

It is intended that Gazprom Neft will lead the development of our crude oil processing segment. We estimate that we will process million tons of crude oil by We intend to achieve this. Marketing and sales. We develop our pipeline gas marketing strategy based on the characteristics.

Our strategy in the Russian domestic market consists of ensuring a continuous gas supply to. Our main objective in our strategy to. We anticipate the wholesale gas market to be dominated by the state. After , this sector is expected to decline, being maintained primarily.

In accordance with a Government decision, domestic. Simultaneously with establishing market prices, the regulated transport tariff is expected to be. The regulated. This is designed to ensure reliable deliveries of gas to different categories of end-users, promote. In the framework of the above-described strategy, the Government has relaxed state.

This change affects gas users and gas deliveries to existing users exceeding the volumes set. Our key objectives in the European market are to maintain our market-leading position, provide. We plan to achieve these objectives by developing relationships with traditional customers.

To consolidate our position in the. European natural gas market and improve the reliability and flexibility of our gas supply, we intend. The key objective of our marketing strategy in the FSU countries is to ensure that Russian gas. Our aim is to gradually achieve. In order to ensure flexibility in determining which fields in the new gas production regions in. Russia to develop, we seek to cooperate with central Asian countries in developing gas reserves as.

We expect that central Asian gas. We anticipate expanding our positions in markets in the Asian and Pacific regions as well as in. In respect of our oil and oil refinery products, we intend to implement a marketing strategy.

Our strategic goal of increasing our. We consider electricity to be a new strategically important area for the development. We believe that we can improve the stability of our business and achieve additional. Our strategic goal in this sector is to. In implementing our electricity strategy in Russia, we plan to increase the proportion of. We believe that such. The power industry reform in Russia has enabled investors to participate in the acquisition of.

UES of Russia, the former natural monopoly for electric power supply and major producer of electric. TGKs primarily. Mosenergo is the largest TGK in terms of total capacity and is situated in the. We plan to acquire interests in other. We also plan to participate in investment projects for the construction of power plants in Russia.

We are considering investing in the construction of, and in acquiring, European electricity power. We are. Since late , in the first stage of the. We plan to increase the volumes of our. In order to expedite entering the LNG market, we are also considering participating in existing. Energy Investment Company Ltd. Shtokmanovskoye field, with its production capacity of up to 95 bcm per year, will ensure sources of. We are also expanding our business activities in natural gas refining.

In particular, we are. The development of an SLF industry would allow us to further diversify our businesses. Totals may not sum due to rounding. Operating expenses Total liabilities Net interest expense Total debt The year ended December 31, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to profit, operating profit, net cash provided by operating activities.

We estimate our reserves of natural gas, gas condensate and crude oil using the Russian reserves. Explored reserves are represented by: categories A, B, and C1; preliminary estimated reserves. Natural gas reserves in categories A, B and C1. For reserves of crude oil and gas condensate, a predicted. We have included in. While the Russian reserves system focuses on the actual physical presence of hydrocarbons in.

The following table sets out our total ABC1 natural gas, gas condensate and crude oil reserves. As of December 31, , and , only reserves owned by us are. Total for the Group Southern Russia Southern federal district Total mmboe Amounts in barrels provided in the letter from DeGolyer. Amounts in barrels provided in the letter. The following table presents summary production data by region. Our production activities are. You should read this information together with our annual audited consolidated financial.

They should not be construed as representations that the RR. The following table sets out our average realized prices per mcm of natural gas including excise. Information with respect to sales of gas condensate, crude oil and refined products including.

The following overview contains basic information about the Notes and Loans and should be read. Each transaction will be structured as a Loan to Gazprom by the Issuer. The Issuer will issue. Notes to Noteholders for the sole purpose of funding such Loan and such Loan will in effect. Each Series will be constituted by a supplemental. Pursuant to the Trust Deed, the Issuer will: i charge by way of. Series of Notes. As a consequence of the assignment of the rights under the Loan Agreement, the.

Trustee shall assume the rights of the Issuer other than certain Reserved Rights, as defined in the. Trust Deed as set out in the relevant provisions of the Trust Deed. If and when the first fixed charge. Trustee will assume certain rights and obligations towards the Noteholders, as more fully set out in.

Each Series of Notes will be made on a limited recourse basis and the Issuer will not. Noteholders for amounts equivalent to the amounts of payments of principal and interest under the. Gaz Capital S. Gazprom as the Borrower Programme for the Issuance of Loan Participation Notes with. Programme Size Up to U. Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas. Principal Paying Agent Deutsche Bank Luxembourg S. Paying Agents Transfer Agents Method of Issue The Notes will be issued on a syndicated or non-syndicated basis.

Issue Price of Notes Notes may be issued at their principal amount or at a discount or. Status of the Notes Each Series of Notes will constitute the obligation of the Issuer to. Ranking of the Loans None of the Loans will be secured by any collateral. Each Loan will. Each Series of Notes will be secured by a first fixed charge on:. Assignment of Rights The Issuer with full title guarantee will assign absolutely its rights.

Form of the Notes The Notes will be issued in registered form. Each Series of Notes. Clearing Systems Initial Delivery of Notes On or before the issue date for each Series, the Regulation S Global. Subject to compliance with all relevant laws, regulations and. Notes will be in such denominations as may be specified in the. Rate of Interest The Notes may be issued on a fixed rate or floating rate basis.

Fixed Rate Notes Fixed interest will be payable in arrear on the date or dates in each. Floating Rate Notes Floating Rate Notes will bear interest determined separately for. Interest Periods and Interest Rates The length of the interest periods for the Notes and the applicable. The relevant Final Terms will specify the basis for calculating the. So long as any Note remains outstanding, the Issuer will not,.

If any payments to be made by the Issuer under any Notes become. Early Redemption If Gazprom is required to pay additional amounts under a Loan. The Issuer will have the benefit of certain covenants made by. The Issuer will lend the net proceeds of the offering of each Series. Further Issues The Issuer may from time to time issue further Notes of any Series.

Listing and Trading Application will be made, where specified in the relevant Final. A Series of Notes issued under the Programme may be rated or. Governing Law The Notes will be governed by English law. The provisions of. Selling Restrictions Prospective investors should consider carefully the risks set forth below and the other information.

Each of the risks. In addition, the trading price of the. Notes could decline due to any of these risks, and you could lose some or all of your investment. You should note that the risks described below are not the only risks we face. We have described. However, there may be additional risks that we currently. The prices of the natural gas we sell in Europe and some FSU countries under long-term contracts. A decline in international prices for crude oil and oil. For over 40 years, we and our predecessors have sold.

Some of our FSU export customers now purchase. Changes in the prices we realize on natural gas under our long-term. Such prices have fluctuated widely in response to changes in many factors over. Should international oil product prices deteriorate, the natural gas prices we realize under our. A decline in our European and other natural gas export revenues would. Such an alteration of the basis on which we.

We have held discussions with the EU in this regard and it has now. However, there can be no assurance. Fluctuations in international prices for energy resources also affect the prices that we receive for. For example, lower prices may reduce the amount of. We may reduce our planned capital expenditures if. We are required to supply a significant portion of natural gas to customers in Russia at prices that are.

We are, and are likely to remain for the foreseeable future, a natural monopoly with respect to. In addition, domestic. Moreover, domestic wholesale natural gas prices for household consumers are. Average natural gas sales prices for Russian customers have increased substantially in recent. Our realized average price for natural gas sold in Russia increased from RR Our realized. In and , domestic gas prices increased in accordance with the rates established by the. No assurance can be given, however, that natural gas prices in Russia will continue to.

Government will not revoke these natural gas price increases. If the natural gas prices we charge to. Russian customers do not increase as proposed, our future results of operations, cash flows and. Delayed, non-collectable and non-cash payments by our customers in Russia and the FSU could adversely.

Our cash flows could be adversely affected by the limited ability, or the inability, of our. Though the share of non-cash. As is the case with many Russian companies, we have had to make use. In the. December 31, , and , respectively, were settled via mutual settlements or other non-cash.

In accordance with the Gas Supply Law, Russian consumers are obliged to pay for natural gas. If consumers fail to make such payments, suppliers have the. We are subject to a broad range of taxes imposed at federal, regional and local levels and we. Political pressure. The Government has exercised, and can be expected to continue to exercise, a strong influence over our. As of May 8,. Moreover, as of May 8, , our subsidiaries excluding Gazprom bank.

Miller, the. On May 7, ,. Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. State authorities regulate the prices we charge for. Through its share ownership, representation on. The Government has previously required Russian companies, including us, to take. We have acquired, and may continue to acquire in the future, businesses and legal entities which. The integration of such newly acquired businesses may.

As a result, the need. Any failure to successfully integrate past or future acquisitions could adversely affect our. Moreover, even if we were successful in. The possibility that we may be reorganized into several smaller and less powerful production.

Although Government officials. Our licenses may be suspended, amended or terminated prior to the end of their terms, and we may not be able. The licensing regime in Russia for the exploration, development and production of natural gas,. We currently conduct our operations under multiple exploration and production licenses, substantially.

Our production licenses for our major. Although historically we have been able. Most of our licenses also provide that they may be terminated if we fail to comply with license. There can be no assurances that we will not be inspected by government. If we fail to fulfill the. Russian law, Government regulators may impose fines on us or suspend, amend or terminate our.

Any suspension, amendment or termination of our licenses could have an adverse effect on. We must increase our capital expenditures in order to satisfy the anticipated demand of our customers, replace. Over the next several years, we must further improve our natural gas, gas condensate and crude. In order to. We plan to provide for. We also plan to provide for annual production of 80 million tons of oil per year by However, if we are unsuccessful in meeting our long-term production targets, it could adversely affect.

This extensive network of pipelines and compressor installations has been. Most of the pipeline is over 10 years old, and some. A significant part of the pipeline is protected by. In addition, large segments of the. Considerable sums of money are required each year to maintain.

These activities will require significant capital expenditures over the next several years. There can be. The global debt capital markets have. This market disruption. Lack of sufficient funds in the future may require us to delay or abandon some. In addition, our plans are based on our expectations that in the. If the. Exploratory drilling involves numerous risks, including the risk that we will not discover any commercially.

We are exploring in various geographical regions, including western Siberia and the Barents Sea,. For these reasons, the cost of drilling, completing and operating wells is. As a result, we may incur cost overruns or may be required to curtail, delay or. In addition, our overall drilling activity or drilling activity. We encounter competition in our largest business, natural gas sales, from alternative fuel sources and other. We face varying degrees of competition in each of our major natural gas export markets from.

No assurance can be given. We encounter competition in Europe from other natural gas suppliers especially from Algeria,. Norway and the Netherlands , which could affect the prices and volumes of our sales of natural gas. If an oversupply of natural gas occurs, natural gas purchasers may be able to negotiate.

An eventual decline in global. However, according to press reports,. No exact scheme of such participation has been. In addition, the western European gas market is still undergoing significant structural change as. The purpose of the.

Gas Directive is to deregulate and liberalize the EU gas market by introducing greater competition. In time, this may have a significant effect on the state of the market. The emergence of a. State Duma has not yet ratified the Treaty. Regulatory Matters. Accordingly, ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty in its. However, high ranking Russian state officials. A large number of our gas production facilities are located in western Siberia, where remoteness.

Our gas and crude oil exploration, production and transportation operations may be adversely. Although there have. The insurance coverage of our assets and operations is limited. We are dependent on the links between our gas pipeline network and other gas pipeline networks that we do not. Although our strategy includes seeking. At the same time, Belarus is dependent on us to meet its domestic requirements for natural.

Although this interdependence. In the past, some of our gas has been diverted as it passed through Ukraine, including, most. In addition, in October and March , we were. So far we have succeeded in coming to mutually. Nevertheless, future disputes with Ukraine or Belarus, if any, could lead to a disruption. We are also currently.

Our fulfillment of our current or. Our operations, which are often potentially hazardous, are subject to the risk of liability arising. We have an established environmental policy and monitor our operations in an effort to meet. We have made provisions in our consolidated financial statements.

Such provisions have been made in accordance. In Russia in particular, it appears recently that federal, regional and. Accordingly, we have decided to strengthen our. The information relating to natural gas, gas condensate and crude oil reserves contained in this. Standards, in particular with respect to the manner in which and the extent to which commercial.

We believe that the evaluated fields. Violations of existing international or U. International and U. Since , we have been involved, in partnership with Total S. In May. Department of State issued a determination that the investment made by our partners. The waiver. We have not yet undertaken any projects under this. If we violate existing international or U.

We believe that we are not currently involved in any. However, no assurance can be given that new sanctions may. There are certain risks associated with. Political and governmental instability could adversely affect the value of investments in Russia, including the. The course of political, economic and other reforms has in some respects been uneven, and. For example, six different prime ministers headed. During his term as president, President Putin has.

In February , just prior to his election for a second term as president, President Putin. Many of these changes have since been implemented. For example, on May 12, , by the Order of. President Putin has also. Pursuant to legislation that was adopted in , single-member-district. Medvedev, the former Chairman of our Board. Putin and became the President of Russia on May 7, Zubkov has been appointed as First Deputy Prime.

Conflict between federal and regional authorities and other domestic political conflicts could create an. Russia is currently a federation of various sub-federal political units. Some of these political. In practice, the division of authority between federal and regional authorities. This uncertainty could hinder our long-term planning efforts and.

For example, to achieve consistency in the regulation of natural gas supplies throughout Russia,. However, regional and local authorities have a significant degree of autonomy in. The Russian legal system and Russian legislation are at a developmental stage and this may create an. In addition, ethnic, religious, historical and other factors have, on occasion, given rise to. Various armed groups in Chechnya have regularly engaged in guerrilla attacks in that area. Violence and attacks relating to this conflict have also spread to other parts of Russia, including.

The further intensification of violence, including terrorist attacks and. The Russian economy has been subject to abrupt downturns. In particular, on August 17, ,. These actions resulted in an immediate and severe. These problems were aggravated by the near collapse of the Russian.

In , several Russian banks experienced a sharp reduction in. There can be no assurance that the positive trends in the Russian economy, such as the increase. As Russia produces and exports large quantities of crude oil and. A significant or. Russian economy. We face inflation and foreign exchange rate risks that could adversely affect our results of operations. The relative movement of inflation and.

In particular, our operating. The pressure on. Conversely, our operating margins are generally positively. Continued appreciation of the. At the same time, a relatively high rate of inflation in Russia results in a decline in the value of. We are required to repatriate our export sales revenues, which could adversely affect our business.

In addition,. We are subject to the requirement of mandatory repatriation of our export sales revenues. In the past, however, we have been required to convert into rubles a. There can be no assurance that the CBR will not require us to convert into rubles a percentage of. In some areas the rail and road networks,.

On May 25, , a failure in the power transmission. In order to enhance the prospects of infrastructure improvement, the Government is actively. These reorganizations. Emerging markets such as Russia are subject to greater risks than more developed markets, and financial. Generally, investing in emerging markets is only suitable for sophisticated investors who fully.

Investors should also note that emerging markets such as Russia are subject to rapid change. Moreover, financial turmoil in any emerging market country tends to adversely affect prices in equity. As has happened in the past, financial problems or an increase in the perceived risks. In addition, during such times, companies that operate in.

Thus, even if the Russian economy remains relatively stable, financial turmoil in any emerging market. Crime and corruption could disrupt our ability to conduct our business and could materially adversely affect. The political and economic changes in Russia since the early s have resulted in reduced. Organized criminal activity has reportedly increased.

In addition, the Russian and. Press reports have. Additionally, published reports. Our business, and the value of the Notes to be issued under the Programme, could be. Social instability could increase support for renewed centralized authority, nationalism or violence and thus. The failure of the state and many private enterprises to pay full salaries on a regular basis and.

For example, in early. These protests periodically blocked highways and streets in major Russian. Such labor and social unrest may have political, social and economic consequences, such as. Any of these could restrict. Russia is still developing the legal framework required by a market economy. Since , Soviet. Government and federal ministries, which are, in turn, complemented by regional and local rules and.

These legal norms, at times, overlap or contradict one another. Several fundamental. Russian laws have only become effective within the past five to ten years. The recent nature of much. Russian legislation and the rapid evolution of the Russian legal system impact the enforceability of. All of these weaknesses could affect our ability to enforce our rights under contracts, or to. The difficulty of enforcing court decisions and the discretion of governmental authorities to file and join claims.

The independence of the judicial system and its immunity from economic and political influences. The court system is understaffed and underfunded. Russia is a civil law. Additionally, court claims are often used in furtherance of personal aims different from the formal. We may be subject to such claims, and courts may render decisions with.

There are also legal uncertainties relating to property rights. However, it is possible that these. Our failure to receive what we believe to be adequate compensation in the. Unlawful, selective or arbitrary decisions of state authorities may have an adverse effect on our business. State authorities have a high degree of discretion in Russia and at times exercise their discretion.

Unlawful or unilateral state actions could include the withdrawal of licenses, sudden and unexpected. Federal and local government entities could also. Such state action, if. Although we believe that we are currently.

Federal Tax Service will not become more aggressive in respect of future tax audits, which may have. The rights of our shareholders, the public reporting requirements and the Russian Accounting Regulations to. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of. United States, the United Kingdom or other jurisdictions. We are subject to Russian law, which requires us to make certain periodic public disclosures. For instance, we are required to publish our annual unconsolidated financial statements in accordance.

We have published financial statements in accordance with IFRS since The Gazprom Group. A majority of. These factors, as well as the preparation of financial statements for each of our. Therefore, we believe that it may take us more time than. In accordance with Russian legislation, we are obliged to file quarterly reports on the activities. Such reports include certain information about us, our management, subsidiaries, affiliates,. We have regularly published such reports since the fourth.

In addition, Russian law requires certain disclosures be made by open joint stock companies,. Shareholders in June Corporate Governance. Shareholder liability under Russian legislation could cause us to become liable for the obligations of our. Russian joint stock company or members in a Russian limited liability company are not liable for the. Under certain. In addition, the effective parent is secondarily. Accordingly, in our position as the effective.

Some transactions conducted by us involving interested parties as defined under Russian law require the. Where all the directors. If this approval procedure is not followed, a transaction could be declared invalid upon a. However, a shareholder may have to prove actual. The interested party. The Joint Stock Companies Law has contained a requirement with respect to the approval of. Under Russian law, the lack of advance.

In certain circumstances, such as when an. In 2 , and. Historically, courts refused to invalidate transactions that were approved after the transactions. However, following revisions to the Joint Stock Companies Law that came into.

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Investing and non inverting amplifier pdf to jpg Over the next several investingyoutube, we must further improve our natural gas, gas condensate and crude. We are, and are likely to remain for the foreseeable future, a natural monopoly with respect to. Autonomous System number investingyoutube Cyber Space. This line seeks the vertical. Consideringthe linkage of all these issues to man-made disasters,we must bear in mind the need to have a database ofdegree of industrial plant wear and tear. My presentation will give a brief overview of South Africa,the Department of Minerals and Energy, and the roleof the mine inspectorate. Through its share ownership, representation on Gazprom's Board of Directors and role as the main regulator, the Government has a strong influence over our operations.
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Friday, June 3, Saturday, June 4, Sunday, June 5, Monday, June 6, Tuesday, June 7, Hourly weather forecast in Yugorsk weather in Yugorsk temperature in Yugorsk weather in Yugorsk today weather in Yugorsk tomorrow weather in Yugorsk for 3 days weather in Yugorsk for 5 days weather in Yugorsk for a week sunrise and sunset in Yugorsk rising and setting of the Moon in Yugorsk exact time in Yugorsk. You are viewing the weather forecast in Yugorsk. See also the weather forecast in Russia , weather forecast in Yugorsk v2 , weather forecast in Russia v2.

All rights reserved, Privacy Policy. Current time in Yugorsk: 1. Moonrise , Moonset , Moon phase: waning crescent. Ultraviolet index: 3,6 Moderate A UV index reading of 3 to 5 means moderate risk of harm from unprotected sun exposure.

Moonrise , Moonset , Moon phase: new. Ultraviolet index: 1,4 Low A UV index reading of 0 to 2 means low danger from the sun's UV rays for the average person. Upload your own Yugorsk weather image: Upload. Issued: 4 pm Sat 28 May local time Updates in: hr min s. Russia Yugorsk. The Long-range 12 day forecast also includes detail for Yugorsk weather today.

Live weather reports from Yugorsk weather stations and weather warnings that include risk of thunder, high UV index and forecast gales. See the links below the day Yugorsk weather forecast table for other cities and towns nearby along with weather conditions for local outdoor activities.

Scroll to left Yugorsk Weather Today 1—3 days. Yugorsk Weather Next Week 10—12 days. See all maps. Rain mm. Yugorsk Weather Today 1—3 days :. Yugorsk Weather 4—7 days :. Yugorsk Weather Next Week 10—12 days :. Weather Station Temp. Weather Wind Cloud. Yugorsk Location map. Some drizzle, heaviest during Mon night. Uray km Heavy rain total 22mm , heaviest during Sun afternoon. Light rain total 9mm , mostly falling on Sun night.

Light rain total 2. Severoural'sk km Moderate rain total 12mm , heaviest on Mon night. Moderate rain total 17mm , heaviest on Sun night. Light rain total 3mm , mostly falling on Mon afternoon. Serov km Moderate rain total 15mm , heaviest on Sun morning. Moderate rain total 13mm , heaviest on Sun night. Light rain total 3. Share Like us Follow us.

Yugorsk Weather Today 1—3 days Moderate rain total 14mm , heaviest on Sun night. Yugorsk Weather 4—7 days Mostly dry. Yugorsk Weather Next Week 10—12 days Mostly dry.

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